Alessandro Scarlatti

Annie Lee | Jul 21, 2023

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Alessandro Scarlatti (Palermo, May 2, 1660 - Naples, October 24, 1725) was an Italian composer of Baroque music. Regarded by musicologists as one of the most important representatives of the Neapolitan school of music, he was the leading Italian opera composer in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

Nicknamed "the Italian Orpheus" by his contemporaries, he divided his career between Naples and Rome, where he received his training; it is to the papal city that a significant part of his output is destined. He is often considered the founder of the Neapolitan musical school, although he was only its most illustrious and most fruitful representative: his contribution, originality and influence were essential, as well as enduring, both in Italy and in Europe.

Particularly well known for his operas, he brought the Italian dramatic tradition, begun by Monteverdi in the early 17th century and continued by Cesti, Cavalli, Carissimi, Legrenzi, and Stradella, to its highest developments, designing the definitive form of the aria con da capo, which was imitated throughout Europe. He was also the inventor of the three-movement Italian overture (which held fundamental importance in the development of the symphony), the four-part sonata (progenitor of the modern string quartet), and the technique of motivic development. He was a role model for the musical theater of his time, as evoked by the Italian production of Händel, who was profoundly influenced by his theatrical music. An eclectic, Scarlatti also touched on all the other genres practiced in his time, from sonata to concerto grosso, motet to mass, oratorio to cantata, the latter genre of which he was an undisputed master.

He was the father of composer Domenico Scarlatti, remembered for his fundamental contribution to the 18th-century harpsichord sonata.

Alessandro Scarlatti was born in Palermo in 1660.

He was the son of Pietro Scarlata (the form "Scarlatti" would not be used until 1672), a tenor from Trapani, and Eleonora Amato, from Palermo. He was also older brother of musician Francesco Scarlatti and singer Anna Maria Scarlatti. Alessandro's early musical training had to take place in the family in Palermo. With his sister Anna Maria he moved to Rome in 1672. It is not known with whom he studied during these early years when he lived in the city. There are no documents or clues to prove a supposed apprenticeship with the now elderly composer Giacomo Carissimi who died in 1674.

On April 12, 1678, in the church of S. Andrea della Fratte, he was united in marriage with Vittoria Ansalone. Numerous children were born of their union, including the musicians Domenico Scarlatti and Pietro Filippo Scarlatti.

In December 1678 he was appointed maestro di cappella of the Church of S. Giacomo degli Incurabili (today S. Giacomo in Augusta). A month later he obtained his first major commission as composer. On January 27, 1679, the archconfraternity of the Holy Crucifix of St. Marcellus commissioned him to write an oratorio to be performed on the third Friday of Lent:

In the carnival of 1679 he gained his first success as an operist with Gli equivoci nel sembiante, a drama for music, which was revived several times in different Italian cities (Vienna, 1681, Ravenna, 1685, etc.). The successful outcome of the opera earned him the protection of Queen Christina of Sweden, who employed him in her service as maestro di cappella. Thanks in part to Cristina's support and the theatrical enterprise of the famous architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini and his sons, his first impresarios, the young Scarlatti was able to launch a brilliant as well as rapid career that would establish him as the leading operist in the major Italian theaters of the time. The success of Equivoci nel sembiante was followed by L'honestà negli amori (1680) and Tutto il mal non vien per nuocere (1681), and then by Il Pompeo (1683) at the theater of Palazzo Colonna and L'Arsate (1683) at Palazzo Orsini.

From November 1682 he was organist and maestro di cappella of the church of S. Girolamo della Carità. He retained this post until October 1683, when he left Rome to move to Naples, probably called by the new viceroy Marquis del Carpio, former Spanish ambassador to Rome, together with a company of singers and instrumentalists and the stage designer Filippo Schor to stage some operas already performed in Rome. In the last two months of 1683 his operas L'Aldimiro and La Psiche were staged in the royal palace in Naples, and in the carnival of 1684 Il Pompeo, which had already been performed the previous year in Rome in the theater of Palazzo Colonna. These were followed by the regular production of one or two operas a year performed in the theater of the Royal Palace. In February 1684, thanks to the support of the viceroy he was able to succeed the late Pietro Andrea Ziani as maestro of the Royal Chapel of Naples. The appointment broke with the tradition whereby the chapel's mostly local members had always been distinct from theater members, and it did not foster Scarlatti's relationships with musicians of the Neapolitan school.

In the early Neapolitan period (1683-1702) Scarlatti was the city's leading theatrical composer, regularly staging at least a couple of operas a year. He also composed several serenades and sacred music, publishing the collection Mottetti sacri (Naples, Muzio, 1702), later reprinted in Amsterdam under the title Concerti sacri (E. Roger, 1707-08).

During those years, while residing in Naples, Scarlatti continued to frequent Rome and maintain intense working relationships with the most important patrons of the papal city. These included Cardinal Benedetto Pamphilj, for whom he set to music the three-voice oratorio Il trionfo della grazia ovvero la conversione di Maddalena (1685) and Act III of the opera La Santa Dimna (1687), both with librettos by the same cardinal, and the opera La Rosmene ovvero l'infedeltà fedele (Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, whose five-voice oratorio La Giuditta (and Prince Antonio Ottoboni, the cardinal's father, whose five-voice oratorio La Giuditta) he set to music.

In the late 1680s Scarlatti entered into direct relations with Prince Ferdinando de' Medici, who availed himself of his collaboration both for works intended for the theater of the Medici villa at Pratolino and other theaters in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and for the composition of sacred music intended for special occasions solemnly celebrated at court. After the revival of the operas, already performed in Rome, Tutto il mal non vien per nuocere in Florence and Il Pompeo in Livorno, in 1689 Ferdinando commissioned him for Pratolino to compose the music for a comedy, perhaps La serva favorita on a libretto by Giovanni Cosimo Villifranchi. In 1698 L'Anacreonte was performed at Pratolino, followed by Flavio Cuniberto (1702), Arminio (1703), Turno Aricino (1704), Lucio Manlio (1706), and Il gran Tamerlano (1706).

In 1702, after the death of King Charles II and the political instability resulting from the clashes between the Habsburgs and the Bourbons over the succession of the kingdom of Spain, Scarlatti, having obtained a license, left Naples for Florence, trusting in the favor of Prince Ferdinand de' Medici to obtain a new arrangement for himself and his son Domenico, who was following him. Having failed in his attempt, he returned to Rome, a city more familiar to him, with which he had always maintained close contacts. In January 1703 he was appointed coadjutor to maestro di cappella Giovanni Bicilli at S. Maria in Vallicella (Chiesa Nuova), and on December 31 of the same year coadjutor to maestro di cappella Antonio Foggia at Santa Maria Maggiore, taking over as titular in July 1707.

During these Roman years (1703-1708) Scarlatti, enjoying the protection of Cardinal Ottoboni, whose service he had entered in April 1705, composed numerous oratorios, performed at S. Maria in Vallicella, at the Palazzo della Cancelleria, at the Seminario Romano, at the Palazzo Ruspoli and elsewhere, such as La santissima Annunziata (1703), Il regno di Maria Vergine (1704), Il Sedecia (1706), Il martirio di s. Cecilia (1708), and the Oratorio per la passione di nostro Signore (1708). He also composed much sacred music, especially for the Liberian basilica, the Missa Clementina in honor of Clement XI and a Miserere for the papal chapel.

During those years he came into contact with Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani, who was in Rome in 1706 on a diplomatic mission on behalf of the emperor for the purpose of bringing the Kingdom of Naples back under the Habsburgs. The relationship with the Grimani earned Scarlatti the commission for two operas, Mithridate and Il trionfo della libertà, which were performed in the 1707 carnival at the San Giovanni Grisostomo theater in Venice, owned by the Grimani family. In the same year his oratorio Cain overo il primo omicidio on a text by Antonio Ottoboni was also performed in Venice.

In December 1708, taking advantage of the change of regime in the viceroyalty of Naples and the fact that Cardinal Grimani had been appointed viceroy, Scarlatti petitioned him for reinstatement to the post of chapel master of the Royal Chapel. The request was accepted in early January 1709, and shortly thereafter the composer returned to Naples.

In Naples he continued his operatic activity, bringing to the stage one or two operas a year until 1719, but despite individual successes such as Il Tigrane (1715), Carlo re d'Allemagna (1716), and the comedy for music Il trionfo dell'onore (1718),, Scarlatti had to endure increasingly strong competition from the new generation of opera composers of the Neapolitan school, such as Leonardo Leo, Domenico Sarro, and Nicola Porpora, who were distant from him in style and school, and who were to establish themselves on the Italian stages from the late 1720s onward. It should be remembered, however, that already in the early eighteenth century, Scarlatti's operatic style was judged by some to be "melancholic," "difficult," "more da stanza because it was particularly complex, being based essentially on counterpoint between voice and instruments, and on a close and balanced relationship between music and text. The new style appearing in Italian opera, and particularly in the Neapolitan school, from the 1720s abandoned contrapuntal writing and favored the distinction of tasks between the vocal part and orchestral accompaniment, preferring a wide-ranging harmonic writing simplified in modulations to give greater emphasis to the virtuosity of the singers. For these reasons, it seems at least partly to rethink the old-fashioned nineteenth-century idea that sees Scarlatti as the principal among the founders of the Neapolitan School of Music. The composer, by the way, never had teaching positions in the Neapolitan conservatories, nor does he seem to have had any real pupils, with the exception of his son Domenico, and musicians unrelated to the Neapolitan school, such as Francesco Geminiani, Domenico Zipoli, and the Germans Johann Adolph Hasse and Johann Joachim Quantz, with whom he had only brief and fleeting contacts, moreover reported by indirect sources many decades after the fact.

In Naples, between 1711 and 1723, he composed at least six serenades performed at the Royal Palace or other palaces of the highest nobility.

During his Neapolitan years, Scarlatti never interrupted his relations with Rome: here in 1712 at the theater of the Palazzo della Cancelleria his opera Il Ciro was performed, with a libretto by Cardinal Ottoboni, who was its patron and patron. In 1715 Pope Clement XI awarded him the title of Knight of the Order of Jesus Christ. Other of his operas were staged at the Capranica Theater: Telemaco (libretto Apostle Zeno).

In 1720 he composed a mass with a gradual, and antiphons, hymn, and Magnificat for Vespers of the feast of St. Cecilia, celebrated in the church dedicated to the saint, commissioned by Cardinal Francesco Acquaviva of Aragon, titular of the basilica.

In 1721 his cantata La gloria di primavera (The Glory of Spring) was performed at the Haymarket Theater in London, featuring the famous soprano Margherita Durastanti.

Scarlatti led the last years of his life, esteemed and revered by the most esteemed musicians of the time visiting Naples, including Johann Adolph Hasse and the flautist Johann Joachim Quantz. However, shortly before his death he had to send a plea to the viceroy for some increase to his salary, lamenting the economic difficulties he was facing.

He died in Naples on October 24, 1725, and was buried in the church of Santa Maria a Montesanto, where the inscription on the tombstone, possibly dictated by Cardinal Ottoboni, can still be read in the chapel of St. Cecilia:

General characters

In order to present the composer's work in a few words, it is necessary to quote his first biographer, musicologist Edward Dent, who stated in the early 20th century:

Scarlatti's musical training took place essentially in Rome, where he had arrived while still 12 years old. There he formed his style in both sacred music and opera. In Rome, during the seventeenth century, opera developed mainly in the private theaters of the nobility and less so in public theaters; these, in fact, during the seventeenth century were not opened on a regular basis, as was the case in Venice, but were sometimes obstructed by papal authority, which offered some resistance to granting licenses on moral grounds. Nevertheless, in the last three decades of the seventeenth century the Tordinona, Capranica, and della Pace theaters were active, albeit not continuously, as well as those run by architects Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Giovan Battista Contini, and Mattia de' Rossi, and that of the Colonna Palace. Scarlatti set to music both works in the genre of comedy (Gli equivoci nel sembiante, L'onestà negli amori, Tutto il mal non vien per nuocere), whose librettos were written by Roman literati such as Pietro Filipo Bernini and Giuseppe Domenico De Totis, and in the genre of drama, such as L'Arsate, to a libretto by Prince Flavio Orsini or Il Pompeo, to a libretto by the Venetian Nicolò Minato.

The success of his works was instrumental in his move to Naples in 1683, where he was summoned by the Marquis del Carpio, who had just been appointed viceroy after serving for several years in Rome as Spanish ambassador.

Scarlatti's style evolved toward the end of the 17th century to adapt to current theatrical taste: while retaining a writing based on counterpoint between voices and instruments, his arias became more extended, and increasingly featured accompaniments entrusted to instrumental parts rather than to basso continuo alone, as he used in his early days; the virtuosity required of the singers in his music, rather than displaying mere technical skills, demanded greater expressiveness and attention to the written text.

His dense and elaborate style of counterpoint and harmony, not at all complacent toward unselected and unrefined audiences, was soon placed at odds with the style in vogue in Venetian and northern Italian theaters, when he received numerous commissions for theaters in these territories. In 1686, the nobleman Carlo Borromeo, wishing to have an opera by Scarlatti for his theater on Isola Bella after the success of Aldimiro in Milan, stated that the composer's "excellence of music" had "greater propriety and modesty than those of Venice, which are those heard in our theater in Milan." The Venetian performance of Mitridate Eupatore (1707), considered one of his masterpieces, earned him criticism for the excessive severity of the style and a certain boredom it allegedly brought to the spectators, as stated in a passage from the malevolent satire in verse against Scarlatti musico by cavalier Bartolomeo Dotti:

Count Francesco Maria Zambeccari of Bologna, a keen observer of musical customs and a careful interpreter of contemporary public tastes, first pointed out in 1709 one of the main reasons that contributed to the difficult reception of Scarlatti's operas in the theaters of northern Italy:

Zambeccari observed the extreme complexity of writing that distinguished the language of a composer more inclined to a severe style, nourished by a solid contrapuntal doctrine, a reflection of his Roman training and of having had to satisfy the demanding and refined tastes of his Roman patrons and patrons.

Scarlatti's oratorios are of no less importance than his operas within the scope of his output. Undoubtedly the familiarity with this genre was fostered by its popularity and spread in various circles in Rome. In the papal city there were congregations, such as that of the Oratorio in S. Maria in Vallicella (Chiesa Nuova), and confraternities, such as that of S. Girolamo della Carità, whose activities included the regular performance of oratorios on Sundays and feast days. In addition, other confraternities used to have oratorios performed at particular times of the year, such as that of the Holy Crucifix of St. Marcellus in Lent and that of St. Mary of Oration and Death on the Octave of the Dead, or on special occasions in religious colleges. Oratorios were also performed in the palaces of the nobility and prelature, having taken on an alternative and complementary role to the opera to which they were added during the Lenten period. Compared to opera, while using the common poetic-musical language of alternating recitatives and arias (or duets) the oratorio did not involve stage action, nor was it performed on a stage, but only with singing accompanied by instruments. Disengaged from the sacredness of the Latin language (which remained in use, by ancient custom, only at Ss. Crocifisso), the Italian-language oratorio could thus circulate in secular and religious circles, yet without interfering with sacred practices.

In Rome Scarlatti made his own debut with an oratorio in Lent 1679 at Ss. Crocifisso. Later he set to music several oratorios on texts written by his principal patrons: Il trionfo della grazia overo la conversione di Maddalena (The Triumph of Grace overo the Conversion of Magdalene (Judith (1695), La Ss. Annunziata (1703), Il regno di Maria vergine (1705), Il martirio di s. Cecilia (1708) and the Oratorio per la Passione di nostro Signor Gesù Cristo (also known under the title La colpa, il Pentimento, la Grazia) (text Giuseppe Domenico De Totis), Il martirio di Santa Teodosia (1684), a second Giuditta (on a text by Antonio Ottoboni), S. Casimir (1704), S. Filippo Neri (1705), Sedecia re di Gerusalemme (1705), Cain overo il primo omicidio (1707) and others, which were re-performed in various Italian centers and in Vienna.

Scarlatti's later oratorio production in Naples was less intense: only Il trionfo del valore: Oratorio per il giorno di San Giuseppe (1709), the Oratorio per la Santissima Trinità (1715) and La Vergine Addolorata (1717) can be counted.

Scarlatti composed nearly 700 cantatas), of which about 600 were for solo voice, mostly for soprano solo, about 70 for voice and instruments, and about 20 for two voices. The great success achieved by these compositions is evidenced by their exceptional dissemination through manuscripts (now preserved in various libraries in Italy and abroad). If the cantatas of the early Roman years appear to be marked by a certain variability in internal structure, similar to the models of Luigi Rossi, Carissimi, and Pasquini, towards the end of the 17th century they seem to confrom to a greater regularity in the recitative-air alternation. The style of Scarlatti's cantatas suggests that they were intended primarily for professional singers of definite talent and for a select audience of particularly cultured and refined listeners, such as those in the courts that orbited around Christina of Sweden, Cardinals Pamphilj and Ottoboni, and Princes Ruspoli, Rospigliosi and Odescalchi, or members of the Accademia dell'Arcadia, which in 1706 welcomed the composer as a member, along with Bernardo Pasquini and Arcangelo Corelli), thanks to Cardinal Ottoboni's protection.

Some leading historians of the twentieth century have emphasized the importance that the symphony ahead the work devised by Scarlatti in these years held in providing a model for the first stage of development of the classical symphony.

What is astonishing is that - having almost completely forgotten vocal works (sacred, secular and operatic), the nineteenth and even the twentieth century were devoted with some assiduity only to the dissemination and performance of the instrumental repertoire. If the keyboard compositions, quite numerous and generally of a high stylistic level, still suffer from the unproportionate comparison with those of his son Domenico, the Dodici sinfonie di concerto Grosso (1715) became an established part of the baggage of many groups specializing in the performance of early music. Although they struggled to free themselves from the mark of Corellianity, the Sinfonie di concerto grosso managed to impose themselves thanks to the perfect use of counterpoint and, above all, thanks to the beauty of the melodies, veined with subtle and sublime melancholy, which is the characteristic and original trait of all Scarlatti's work.

Scarlatti's operas provide a very important point of connection between the music of the late 17th century and that of the 18th century, culminating in Mozart. His earliest operas (Il Pompeo, containing the famous arias O cessate di piagarmi and Toglietemi la vita ancor) still use the ancient cadenzas in their recitatives and a very wide variety of small arias, sometimes accompanied by a string quartet, treated with careful elaboration, sometimes accompanied by harpsichord alone.

From about 1697 and before La caduta de' Decemviri, perhaps under the influence of Giovanni Bononcini's style and probably even more so of the viceroy's taste, his works become more conventional and commonplace in terms of rhythm, while his writing becomes rougher, yet not without brilliance. Oboes and trumpets are used frequently, and violins often play in unison.

The Mitridate Eupatore, considered his masterpiece, composed in Venice in 1707, contains music far superior to what Scarlatti had written for Naples, both technically and intellectually. The last Neapolitan works (Il Tigrane), are more ostentatious and effective than deeply emotional. The instrumentation marks a great advance over the earlier works, the voice being mainly accompanied by the string quartet, and reserving the harpsichord exclusively for the powerful instrumental refrains. It was in the opera Theodora, 1697, that the use of the ritornello by the orchestra began.

His last group of works, composed for Rome, shows a deeper poetic sense, a broad and elegant melodic style, a much more modern style of orchestration and a strong sense of drama, particularly in the accompanied recitatives, a technique he first used as early as 1686 (Olimpia vendicata). Horns appear for the first time, often treated to surprising effects. Il trionfo dell'onore (his only comic opera and a masterpiece of the genre that, in later years, would become a favorite of composers of the new generation such as Leo and Vinci) and Griselda, span more than half a century of opera, anticipating Mozartian freshness and finesse.

In addition to operas, Scarlatti composed many oratorios, such as Agar and Ishmael exiled, The Rose Garden and the San Filippo Neri, and serenatas, all of which show a similar style. Scarlatti wrote nearly 820 chamber cantatas for solo voice (of which 620 are attributed with certainty); no composer of his time produced so many. The impressive number of cantatas is best explained by the fact that these works were largely born during the papal ban on opera in Rome: in fact, Innocent XII closed the Tordinona theater (owned by Christina of Sweden) in 1697 and banned musical performances at the Capranica theater in 1699. Supported by Roman patrons, such as Cardinals Ottoboni and Pamphilj, and Prince Ruspoli, there was a renewed demand for chamber cantatas, then by far the favorite musical form of the nobility and bourgeoisie, where in intimacy feelings were expressed and the favorite theme of these works: love. Often these patrons and recipients were also the authors of the set to music texts, such as Pietro Ottoboni, whose signature was hidden under the Arcadian pseudonym of Crateo Ericinio. They represent the most intellectual chamber music of this period. The cantatas, in fact, were to Scarlatti what the madrigal was to Monteverdi in his time, that is, a workshop and crucible of inspiration aimed exclusively at the small audience of connoisseurs. The composer with a fertile imagination thus had the opportunity to fully realize himself and give the expression of all his genius in these small forms, where the boldest harmonic sequences abound, going hand in hand with the melodic characterization that would serve as a model for the later Baroque composers.

Scarlatti was widely considered in his day to be a great composer of sacred music and cantatas. This repertoire of Scarlatti's is not yet rehabilitated or even considered today in proportion to the importance of the corpus: ten masses, 114 motets (including six Dixit Dominus, five Salve Regina, one Stabat Mater), the Lamentations for Holy Week, The First Murder. The works are often intended for Rome, even during the period when he resided in Naples, and the style, contrapuntal, is complicated in detail. In such genre the composer shows all his stylistic eclecticism. He is as comfortable in the ancient style of traditional polyphony as he is in the Baroque rhetoric of affect. Both styles act in parallel in his work.

The ten masses that have come down to us today are generally of minor importance, with the exception of the great Mass of St. Cecilia: Scarlatti was then sixty years old and composed it in the early eighteenth century, in a modern style of the time, characterized by brio and seduction, which culminated in the great masses of Bach and Beethoven and "seems to foretell the last masses of Haydn." This remarkable work, "crowning all its sacred music," almost contemporary with Bach's Magnificat (1723), has nothing to envy it, "both in terms of musical interest and stylistic synthesis of early eighteenth-century trends."

The interest and importance of Scarlatti's instrumental works are proportional to their number, although his music is particularly underrated.

His keyboard music includes a collection of 7 toccatas for harpsichord for explicitly pedagogical purposes, the first also being entirely fingered by the composer, making it a valuable document for Baroque keyboard technique. Also coming down to us is a long Toccata in the first tone that ends with 29 variations on the theme of Folly.

Although interesting, his instrumental music seems to be of very early writing compared to his vocal works of the same period, although it presents, according to some, "an admirable fluidity." He was, however, one of the first exponents of the Neapolitan school to develop a repertoire that was almost nonexistent before him. The value and quality of his production of instrumental music lies in its architecture and lyrical intensity. At the height of his career, the Sinfonie di concerto grosso and the Sei Concerti grossi were written, which remain to this day his best-known works of instrumental music.


  1. Alessandro Scarlatti
  2. Alessandro Scarlatti
  3. ^ Dirk Kruse: Alessandro Scarlatti: Größter Erneuerer der Musik auf: BR-Klassik vom 19. Februar 2017.
  4. ^ a b SCARLATTI, Alessandro in "Dizionario Biografico"
  5. ^ Roberto Pagano e Lino Bianchi, Alessandro Scarlatti, Torino, ERI-RAI, 1972, pp. 24-29.
  6. ^ Arnaldo Morelli, Alessandro Scarlatti maestro di cappella in Roma ed alcuni suoi oratori. Nuovi documenti, in «Note d’archivio per la storia musicale», n.s., II (1984), pp. 118-119.
  7. La BnF possède trois cantates attribuées à Pietro Scarlatti[15].
  8. Dirk Kruse: Alessandro Scarlatti: Größter Erneuerer der Musik auf: BR-Klassik vom 19. Februar 2017.
  9. Nach anderen Angaben war Giuseppe Scarlatti ein Sohn von Francesco Scarlatti (1666 – nach 1741), einem Bruder Alessandro Scarlattis, vgl. Franz Brendel, Geschichte der Musik in Italien, Deutschland und Frankreich, Leipzig 1852 u. ö., S. 109.
  10. Nicolò Maccavino, Ausilia Magaudda: La religione giardiniera (Napoli, 1698) - Il giardino di Rose (Roma, 1707): Nuove Acquisizioni, in: Devozione e Passione - Alessandro Scarlatti nel 350. anniversario della nascita, (Conservatorio di musica F. Cilea, Reggio Emilia) Rubettino Editore, 2013, S. 303–368 (Italienisch)
  11. «Cópia arquivada». Consultado em 2 de maio de 2011. Arquivado do original em 21 de julho de 2011
  12. Ver também: GONÇALVES, Robson. Uma Breve Viagem pela História da Ópera Barroca. SP: Clube de Autores, 2011, págs. 36 e seguintes. Disponível em [1]

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