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Tintoretto, pseudonym of Jacopo Robusti, according to some Jacopo Comin (Venice, September or October 1518 - Venice, May 31, 1594), was an Italian painter, a citizen of the Republic of Venice and one of the greatest exponents of Venetian painting and Mannerist art in general.

The pseudonym "Tintoretto" came to him from his father's trade, a dyer of silk fabrics. Because of his phenomenal energy in painting, he was nicknamed The Furious or the Terrible, as Vasari called him because of his strong character, and his dramatic use of perspective and light, which made him considered the precursor of Baroque art.Regarded as one of the greatest painters of the Renaissance and of all time, Tintoretto knew how to continue, along with Paolo Veronese, the extraordinary international success of Venetian painting, even after Titian's death. Famous for the great perspective depth of his works, he favored the use of dark backgrounds to get at the light, creating extraordinary chiaroscuro effects that would, later, become fundamental to the art of such personalities as Caravaggio. His art came to influence, in later centuries, even the Impressionists.

The younger years

His date of birth is not certain. The baptismal certificate was lost in the fire in the San Polo archives, so it is deduced from the death certificate: "May 31, 1594: died messer Jacopo Robusti detto Tintoretto de età de anni 75 e mesi 8": thus dating back to September

His father Giovanni Battista worked in the field of silk dyeing, it is not known whether on an artisanal or commercial level: he was probably a native of Lucca, since this art had been imported to Venice in the 14th century by the people of Lucca themselves. This ancestry would explain the artist's interest in his "colleagues" of the Tuscan-Roman school, such as Michelangelo, Raphael, and Giulio Romano: Tintoretto became acquainted with their works through the dissemination of prints, while it is certain that from life he saw Romano's frescoes at Palazzo Te in Mantua. It seems that Battista was part of the "citizens," or those non-noble Venetians who also enjoyed certain privileges: thanks to this position of a certain privilege, Jacopo was on good terms with the Venetian elite and obtained the support of the patricians.

Jacopo did not hide his origins; indeed, in his paintings he signed himself as "Jacobus Tentorettus" (Portrait of Jacopo Sansovino, c. 1566) or "Jacomo Tentor" (The Miracle of St. Mark Freeing the Slave, 1547-48).

Very little is known about the painter's childhood as there are no documents attesting to his studies. The main sources are commission payments and the biography written by Carlo Ridolfi (1594-1658), although the latter never met Tintoretto but drew his information from his son Domenico. Ridolfi recounts that Tintoretto, while still a boy, used colors from his father's workshop to paint the walls of the workshop: to indulge his son's inclination, Battista found him a place as an apprentice in Titian's workshop in 1530. This apprenticeship lasted only a few days: it seems that Titian, having seen one of the pupil's drawings, out of fear that the promising pupil would become a dangerous rival, had Girolamo, one of his assistants, kick him out.

In a 1539 document, Tintoretto signs himself "mistro Giacomo depentor nel champo di san Cahssan," meaning he bears the title of master, with an independent studio at campo san Cassiàn, in the San Polo district.

The first commission came to him from Vettor Pisani, a nobleman with family ties to Andrea Gritti and the owner of a bank, around 1541: on the occasion of his wedding he had his residence at San Paterniàn restored and commissioned the young Tintoretto, aged 23, to paint 16 panels illustrating Ovid's Metamorphoses. The paintings, now largely housed in the Galleria Estense in Modena, were to be placed on the ceiling, and Pisani demanded that they have the powerful perspective of Giulio Romano's paintings in Mantua: Tintoretto went in person to Palazzo Te, probably at his patron's expense.

Coeval with the paintings for Pisani are the six panels in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, which are thought to have been made as decorations for chests, partly because of their almost identical dimensions: indeed, Ridolfi reports that Tintoretto collaborated with furniture craftsmen who traded near the Doge's Palace. Nothing, however, confirms that these panels actually came from wedding chests. The peculiarity of these works is the handling of the elongated format (the largest ones, in fact, measure 29x157 cm): Tintoretto exploits the architecture to scan the temporal sequence of the narrated events.

Early successes

Tintoretto is thought to have sought a contract with the Scuola Grande di San Marco in 1542, when he was commissioned to decorate the chapter house: the artist was preferred to decorators, who would have taken less time to complete the required works.

Five years later Marco Episcopi, father of the artist's betrothed, was appointed guardian da matin and this facilitated a favorable commission for Jacopo. Episcopi was the son of Pietro, an apothecary in Campo Santo Stefano, who had property leased to dyers of silks and velvets: because of this, or the simple fact that as an apothecary he also traded pigments, it is assumed that he had contacts with Battista Robusti.

In April 1548 the canvas depicting The Miracle of St. Mark was placed on the wall facing Campo Santi Giovanni e Paolo: immediately Tintoretto received praise from Aretino.

In the meantime, in 1547, Tintoretto moved to Cannaregio, near the church of the Madonna dell'Orto: here he began a collaboration with the canons of San Giorgio in Alga, who were in charge of the church and intended to renovate it. He thus produced several works, ranging from the decoration of the organ with the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, to the Contarini Chapel, completed in 1563; he also collaborated with the brothers Cristoforo and Stefano Rosa, who were responsible for the trompe-l'œil wooden ceiling, in which Tintoretto inserted paintings depicting episodes from the Old Testament and, in the clerestory, twelve niches containing portraits of prophets and sibyls, an open reference to Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel. Most of these works were lost during the neo-Gothic style restoration of the 19th century. To obtain this commission, Tintoretto asked for a payment that could barely cover the cost of materials: however, it is likely that a later fee came to him from the Grimani family, which had a chapel inside the church.

Relations with the Scuola Grande di San Marco continued until about 1566, with the execution of three more canvases depicting posthumous miracles of the saint: St. Mark Saving a Saracen, Stealing the Body of St. Mark, and Finding the Body of St. Mark. These paintings were paid for by the then Guardian Grande of the Scuola, Tommaso Rangone: the work was presumably finished in 1566, the date Vasari notes that he saw them. These canvases were also joined by wall paintings, depicting the Seven Vices and Seven Virtues, of which, however, no trace remains.

Having ended his relations with the Scuola Grande di San Marco for the time being, the painter obtained an important commission for the Albergo della Scuola della Trinità, a minor confraternity: the building was located where the Basilica of Santa Maria della Salute now stands. Initially, the commission had been given to Francesco Torbido: the reason for the termination of the contract is not known, but it can be assumed that Tintoretto was preferred because of a more advantageous offer, as he used to procure commissions.

For the Albergo della Scuola, between 1551 and 1552, he executed a cycle of paintings inspired by the stories of Genesis, including the Creation of the Animals, Original Sin, and Cain and Abel: in devising the compositions, he took inspiration from works by contemporary artists, such as Titian and his collaborator Gerolamo Tessari, or from Venice's past, such as Vittore Carpaccio and his Stories of Saint Ursula. The painting of Original Sin would later influence an artist such as Giambattista Tiepolo.

In the canvases he painted for the Scuole Grandi in Venice, Tintoretto made paintings that look like large stages on which the miraculous episodes materialized, in which the dramatic gestures of the characters dominate, the strong and antinaturalistic contrasts between light and darkness that also symbolically highlight the exceptional nature of the event depicted.

The Great School of Saint Roch

Founded in 1478, as early as 1489 it could boast the title of "Great": like the other Schools, it aimed to offer its members "honorable burial," assistance in case of illness, dowries for their daughters, and homes for widows. The Schools competed with each other not only in pious works but also in magnificence of decoration: Tintoretto aspired to become the "official" artist of the Scuola Grande di San Rocco early in his career. When the first works for the Scuola were commissioned in 1542, however, decorators were summoned, as in the case of the Scuola Grande di San Marco: seven years later, finally, Tintoretto was awarded his first commission, St. Roch Heals the Plague Victims, for the church adjacent to the Scuola.

For the next commission, however, the painter had to wait again: in fact, Titian, jealous of his success, resurfaced as a member of the school and offered to execute works for the hotel. This ended in a dead end, and Tintoretto, in 1559, received a new commission: it was for the execution of the doors of the cabinet that contained the sacred silverware of San Rocco.

In 1564, Tintoretto presented to the Giunta the oval of St. Roch in Glory, to be placed in the main hall of the Albergo: the Scuola was planning a competition, involving other artists besides Tintoretto, for the assignment of the oval in question. Documents show that one of the members of the confraternity, Mara Zuan Zignoni, was willing to shell out 15 ducats so that the commission would not be awarded to Tintoretto: this indicates that her name was already being thought of for the work.

Vasari relates that in contrast to the colleagues involved in the competition, who were intent on making preparatory studies, Tintoretto took exact measurements of the work, painted it, and placed it directly where predetermined: to the protests of the brethren, who had requested drawings and not a finished work, he replied that that was his way of drawing and that he was willing to donate the work to them.

With his decidedly advantageous offer, the artist succeeded in obtaining the much-desired commission, albeit causing "stir and discontent."

In spite of this, on March eleventh of the following year, with 85 votes in favor and 19 against, Tintoretto was appointed a member of the School: in conjunction with his election, he was commissioned to execute a cycle of paintings for the walls of the hall of the Albergo, which were to depict the Passion of Jesus. Instead of starting in chronological order, thus with Christ before Pilate, Tintoretto preferred to execute the Crucifixion first: the following year the decoration of the hall was finished and the artist turned again to the church of the saint.

Already in 1549 he had executed Saint Roch restores the plague victims: now he had the chance to finish the cycle, thought to consist of four canvases, of which the one that stands out most is Saint Roch in Prison (1567). By 1575 the restoration of the ceiling of the Great Hall had been completed and the go-ahead was given for the execution of the canvases, long planned by Tintoretto: in the summer of that year, however, Venice was devastated by the plague. Perhaps to assure the mercy of the Saint, protector of the plague victims, towards himself and his family, the artist offered to execute the central canvas without any compensation: the following year, on the feast of the Saint, the canvas was inaugurated. Only a few days later came the news of the death of Titian and his son Horace.

For the other two canvases of the ceiling, executed in 1577, Tintoretto took his cue from the oration that the doge held at St. Mark's, as a plea for Salvation and encouragement to the remaining population: Alvise I Mocenigo recalled the biblical episodes of the manna and the spring brought forth by Moses, which the artist depicted on two large canvases. For this work he asked for compensation relating only to the expense of the materials used, and so he offered to do for subsequent works as well: he asked the Scuola as his only compensation a payment of 100 ducats per year, a sum far less than that received, for example, by his colleague Titian when he was in the service of the Habsburgs. This request can be explained by the artist's great devotion to the saint, to whom he felt indebted for having his family saved during the terrible plague of those years.

Tintoretto worked on the Chapter House until 1581, illustrating scenes from the Old Testament for the ceiling and the New for the walls. The following year he began painting for the Lower Hall, with paintings inspired by the lives of Mary and Jesus.

The portraits

One of the major sources of income for Tintoretto's workshop was portraits, despite the great competition he faced in Venice, particularly that of Titian: it seems that in this particular area the artist enlisted the help of his children Marietta and Domenico, and his daughter's skill at the time was well known. Portraiture was an excellent way to make a name for himself in high places and thus obtain important commissions.

Time was of the essence for a portrait: often the subject could not afford long posing sessions, either because they were tiring or because he was unable to get too far away from his business. For this reason, it was customary to make a series of quick studies from life, to be reworked later for the actual painting: these studies could also be kept and reused on other occasions, such as in the case of portraits of sovereigns in multiple versions.

Girolamo Priuli, who became doge in 1559, commissioned Tintoretto to execute his portrait: Andrea Calmo, a friend of the artist, reports that the work was completed in half an hour. Tintoretto had in fact prepared the canvas in good time; the pose was already sketched out, since doge portraits had a determined pattern; the finishing touches and drapery of the robes were then done in the painter's studio, with the help of mannequins and fabrics.

In cases where a portrait was to be included in a large work, such as a votive painting, Tintoretto used to execute it on a canvas stretched on a temporary frame and then have it sewn directly onto the larger canvas.

In addition to prominent personalities of contemporary Venice, such as nobles and politicians, the portraits he made also include those of some of the most famous courtesans of the time: these include Veronica Franco, a cultured and educated woman who dabbled in poetry, frequented noble houses such as that of the Veniers and even entered the good graces of Henry III of France. Tintoretto also portrayed courtesans in the guise of heroines of mythology, such as Leda, Danae or Flora. In the portraits of these maidens one can recognize the "profession" of a courtesan by the typical attributes they possess: precious jewelry, pearl chokers, decorated combs or mirrors.


By the middle of the century, with Titian and Bonifacio de' Pitati dead, the two biggest names on the Venetian art scene were those of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese: although the Republic was heading for decline due to the reduction of its importance in trade routes caused by the discovery of the Americas, the defeats against the Turks and against the League of Cambrai, the demands for works of art continued apace, thanks to the push of the Counter-Reformation and the consequent renovation of religious buildings.

Veronese was a rival not only because of his skill but also because of his young age: having recently arrived in Venice, he managed as early as 1553 to obtain a commission for the Doge's Palace.

It was during this period that Tintoretto devoted himself to challenging commissions, particularly decorative cycles for churches, schools, and the Doge's Palace: in these works, the artist "deepened the dynamic component of the compositions," resorting to foreshortenings and perspectives that enhance the dynamism of the scenes illustrated.

The Stories of Genesis, painted for the School of the Trinity in the early 1550s, finds an important support for the characters in the landscape, an unusual theme for Tintoretto, who exploits it to highlight and accompany the narrative, although he fails to achieve the same force as can be seen in Giorgione or Titian. The Lamentation over the Body of Christ, now at the Museo Civico Amedeo Lia in La Spezia, is dated between 1555-1556, influenced by the work of Paolo Veronese. The landscape innovations are condensed in Susanna and the Old Men of 1557: here the nature surrounding the scene punctuates the narrative, leading the eye of the viewer, undoubtedly attracted by Susanna's bursting nudity, toward the two lascivious old men, to the garden in the background, an unattainable Eden.

For two years, he was busy with paintings made for the choir of the Church of Our Lady of the Garden, delivered in 1563: these were two large canvases, 14.5 x 5.8 meters, depicting the Adoration of the Golden Calf and the Last Judgment, and five segments dedicated to the Virtues. For the Judgment he was undoubtedly inspired by Titian's Gloria and Michelangelo's Last Judgment.

At the same time, Tommaso Rangone, Guardian Grande of the Scuola Grande di San Marco, offered to have three paintings depicting the saint's miracles executed at his own expense: the commission was given to Tintoretto, who had already worked for the Scuola. Thus continued the artist's relationship with the Scuola Grande di San Marco, which lasted until about 1566, with the execution of the canvases St. Mark Saving a Saracen during a Shipwreck, Stealing the Body of St. Mark and Finding the Body of St. Mark. These were also joined by wall paintings, depicting the Seven Deadly Sins and the Seven Virtues, cardinal and theological, of which, however, no trace remains.

On March 6, 1566, he was appointed a member of the prestigious Accademia delle arti del disegno, which was established in Florence at the behest of Vasari, under the protection of Cosimo I, and which grouped under him the most important artists of the time.

Once again, he was given an important commission by a School, that of the Blessed Sacrament, of which Christino de' Gozi was Guardian: it involved the execution of two canvases for the church of San Cassiano, depicting the Descent into Limbo and the Crucifixion.

Giulio Carlo Argan writes: "The Venetian republic is the only Italian state in which the religious ideal is identified with the civil ideal, and this ideal is equally reflected, albeit with different accents, in the painting of the two masters. Of sixteenth-century Venice Tintoretto expresses the consciousness of duty and civic responsibility, the deeply Christian spirit that led it to war against the Turks and to the dramatic triumph of Lepanto; Veronese, on the other hand, is the interpreter of the intellectual openness and civilized way of life that made Venetian society (...) the freest and most culturally advanced. The sentiment of duty and that of freedom have a common source, the humanistic ideal of human dignity; and since this is felt, in the art of the time, only by the Venetian masters (by the architect Palladio no less than by the painters), it is explained how their work preserves and passes on to the next century (to Caravaggio, Carracci, Bernini and Borromini) the great legacy of humanistic culture" (i.e. Humanism and the Renaissance). Further on, Argan writes that in Tintoretto "nature is fantastic vision troubled almost obsessive; history is spiritual torment, tragedy." "Tintoretto's visions are not ecstatic, contemplative, soothing but, on the contrary, agitated, dramatic, tormented. They do not soothe, they intensify to paroxysm the pathos of existence."

The reconstruction of the Ducal Palace

As early as 1566 Tintoretto had worked for the Ducal Palace, with five canvases to be placed in the Saletta degli Inquisitori: Borghini names them as the Allegory of Silence and the Virtues. In the same period, he also received, after many commissions for religious institutes, an important commission from the state: a large canvas depicting the Last Judgment to be placed in the Sala dello Scrutinio, which Ridolfi describes as being "such was the motive, which caused that painting, that it terrified the minds to see it." Along with this, he also made the re-enactment of the Battle of Lepanto, for Doge Alvise I Mocenigo: both canvases were destroyed in the fire of 1577, which devastated the Doge's Palace just a year after the severe plague that had decimated the population.

The artist's workshop was also involved in the decoration of the Libreria Sansoviniana, entrusted to masters such as Veronese, Salviati, and Andrea Schiavone: Tintoretto was entrusted with the execution of the five canvases of The Philosophers, although contemporary critics report eleven or even twelve canvases. The cartoons for mosaics to be placed in St. Mark's also date to the same period: the Presentation in the Temple is faithful to the Byzantine mosaic in a "deliberately archaic style," and the similarities with The Circumcision made by Domenico for the Scuola di San Rocco lead the artist's son to be responsible for its conception.

While still engaged with the Scuola di San Rocco, Tintoretto agreed to work on the reconstruction of the Doge's Palace, starting with the ceiling of the Sala delle Quattro Porte, with frescoes in the compartments designed by Francesco Sansovino: the decorations have as their theme the personification of Venice and its mainland domains.

In 1574 he bought a house in the Fondamenta dei Mori near the Church of St. Martial, where he would live until his death: for the high altar of the church, the artist had already made, between 1548 and 1549, an altarpiece depicting St. Martial between Saints Peter and Paul.

Still busy with commissions for the Ducal Palace, in 1579 he was commissioned by Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga to paint a series of works to be placed in the Ducal Palace in Mantua: this was a cycle consisting of eight large canvases-known as the Gonzaga Fasti- depicting war and courtly episodes featuring marquises and dukes of the Gonzaga lineage. In September 1580 Tintoretto went in person to Mantua with his wife Faustina, guests of his brother Domenico, for the inauguration of the works placed in the Hall of the Dukes.

The fire of 1577 also destroyed Guariento's fresco that occupied the wall of the Doge's and Councillors' tribunes in the Sala del Maggior Consiglio: in 1580 a competition was held for the commission, in which Veronese, Francesco Bassano son of Jacopo and Jacopo Palma il Giovane participated along with Tintoretto. Initially given the commission to Veronese and Bassano, it was then taken over by Tintoretto upon Veronese's death in 1588.

The immense painting (7.45x24.65 meters) depicting the Paradise was made in pieces, in the studio of St. Martial, with a great contribution of the workshop and in particular of his son Domenico, who also took care of the connection of the canvases on site. Unlike the initial sketch, which featured Mary crowned, the painting focuses on the figure of Christ Pantokrator, "divine doge."

At more than 70 years old, in the same year as his death, Tintoretto still had the strength to devote himself to two major works for the Basilica of San Giorgio Maggiore, the Jews in the Desert and the Fall of the Manna and a Last Supper: still for San Giorgio, he executed the Deposition in the Tomb, which can be placed between 1592, the date of construction of the Chapel of the Dead, and 1594, the date of payment.

After a two-week fever, Tintoretto died on May 31, 1594, and was buried after three days in the church of Madonna dell'Orto, in the crypt of the Episcopi family. According to reports by a coeval cartographer and artistic patron, Ottavio Fabri, Tintoretto after dying, by his testamentary will, was laid on the ground for forty hours, apparently in an attempt to resurrect. Indeed, Fabri writes to his brother Tullio who was in Constantinople: il Tentoretto Dominica se ne morì et d'ordine di suo testamento è stato tenuto 40 hore sopra terra, mà no' è ressussitato. There is also to note that May 31 was a Tuesday and not a Sunday.

Analyses carried out in the 1970s on samples taken from canvases in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco yielded valuable information regarding the materials and techniques employed by Tintoretto.

The canvases used, in all the samples, turned out to be linen, with different weaves, either simple like tabì, similar to taffeta, or more robust like herringbone. The choice of weave does not seem to be dependent on the type of painting or its location, rather on its patron: for example, for the Last Supper Tintoretto used a coarse weave, despite the painting being visible from a close distance.

As already mentioned about Paradise, it was not uncommon for paintings to be made on canvases sewn together: in fact, the looms of the time could achieve heights of up to 110 cm. Usually, the seams were made before the painting was executed, so that they would be as invisible as possible, and above all that they would not be in correspondence with important parts such as hands and faces: it was also preferable to use pieces with the same weave, in order to have greater uniformity. Tintoretto, on the other hand, seems not to pay attention to these expedients: he uses scraps of canvas with different weaves between them, with even obvious seams, as in the case of the face of the Virgin in the Flight into Egypt, from the Scuola di San Rocco.

The most common imprimiture consisted of a thin layer of gesso and glue, derived from those already used in panel painting: the light background gave greater luminosity to the colors subsequently spread. Tintoretto preferred instead a dark ground, spread over the gesso imprimitura or directly on the canvas: analyses have revealed that it is not a uniform brown color, but rather an impasto obtained with the residues of palettes, given the presence of microscopic colored particles. On the background thus prepared it was possible to paint both light and dark tones, even allowing the background itself to shine through: this was possible in cases where the painting was in dark or shadowy areas and helped to greatly speed up the execution of the painting.

Ridolfi recounts that the artist used to set up small "little theaters" to study the composition of the works and the effect of the lights: he draped the robes on wax models, which he then arranged in "rooms" built from cardboard, lit by candles. For the study of foreshortenings, he hung mannequins from the studio ceiling: this is evident from a comparison of two paintings, the Miracle of St. Mark Freeing the Slave and St. Roch in Prison Comforted by an Angel, in both of which one can recognize a similar model used for the suspended figures.

For his chalk studies, Tintoretto was fond of the blue paper that was so fashionable in Bologna and allowed him to use both darks and highlights.

In 1550 he married Faustina Episcopi, by whom he had 7 children, while he had an illegitimate daughter by a foreigner: Marietta, the eldest child, was the only one talented enough to follow in her father's footsteps. Already at the age of 16 she was in demand as a portrait painter by patrons of some importance: between 1567 and 1568 the merchant Jacopo Strada had commissioned Titian to paint a portrait of himself, while for that of his son Ottavio, an obvious pendant of his own, he turned to Marietta. To prevent his daughter from being "kidnapped" by foreign courts, Tintoretto gave her in marriage to the Venetian goldsmith Marco Augusta. In 1590, at just over 30 years of age, Marietta died: she was buried in the church of the Madonna dell'Orto.

Domenico, four years his junior (1560-May 1635), chose to carry on his father's workshop at the expense of his own private life: a lover of literature, he had to take on the maintenance of his mother and sisters. The workshop, under his leadership, lost the prestige it had known with the progenitor. Among the works produced, the portraits shine most for their freshness, while the multi-figure compositions are heavier and more stereotypical. He died in 1635: four years later, his collaborator Sebastiano Casser married Domenico's sister Ottavia, by then more than 80 years old, trying unsuccessfully to revive the workshop's fortunes.

Very little is known about Giovan Battista; he probably died at a young age; Marco (March 12, 1563-October 1637) preferred to become an actor, against the wishes of the family. Perina (also of the other two daughters, Altura and Laura, not much is known.

During his lifetime, Tintoretto treated his sons and daughters with equal dignity, trying to leave them with something to live on: in the petition for senseria in 1572 he named the males as well as the females, and in his will he named all of them as his heirs.

Tintoretto and his family are the protagonists of Melania Mazzucco's historical novel The Angel's Long Wait.


  1. Tintoretto
  2. Tintoretto
  3. ^ La luce del Tintoretto, infatti, evidenzia i personaggi e gli oggetti staccandoli da qualsiasi contesto reale e proiettandoli nello spazio scenografico di una fantasia.
  4. ^ According to historian Stefania Mason, the discovery and publication in 2004 of a "fanciful account" in a letter of 1678 to a Spanish art collector from his agent in Venice is responsible for a misconception that Jacopo's surname was Comin. "Robusti is the name that appears in his tax declarations" and other official documents. Echols 2018, pp. 39–40, 227.
  5. ^ a b Bernari and de Vecchi 1970, p. 83.
  6. ^ Zuffi, Stefano (2004). One Thousand Years of Painting: An Atlas of Western Painting from 1000 to 2000 A.D. Milan, Italy: Electa. p. 427. OCLC 907045157.
  7. ^ Echols 2018, p. 39.
  8. ^ Echols 2018, pp. 38–40.
  9. Spanish curator uncovers true name of Tintoretto
  10. a b c d e f Alexandra Matzner: Biographie von Jacopo Tintoretto (1518/19–1594). In: ArtInWords.de, 5. Oktober 2017.
  11. Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto und die Scuola Grande von San Rocco. Storti Edizioni, Venedig 1999, S. 10.
  12. Carlo Bernari, Pierluigi de Vecchi (Hrsg.): L'opera completa del Tintoretto. In: Classici dell’Arte. Rizzoli, 1970/2000, ISBN 978-88-17-27336-7, S. 83.
  13. Roland Krischel: Jacopo Tintoretto, 1519–1594. Könemann, Köln 2000, ISBN 978-3-8290-2876-9, S. 6.
  14. Alexander Linke (Kunsthistoriker) zitiert in Kirsten Serup-Bilfeldt: Zum 500. Geburtstag des Malers Jacopo Tintoretto. In: Deutschlandfunk, 25. April 2018.

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