Khanate of Kazan

Eumenis Megalopoulos | Jan 27, 2023

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The Kazan Khanate (Qazan khanlygy, Qazan xanlığı, قزان خانلغی) is a Tatar feudal state in the Middle Volga region, which existed from 1438 to 1552.

Formed in the process of disintegration of the Golden Horde on the territory of the Bulgar ulus, presumably as a result of the capture of Kazan in 1438 by the Golden Horde khan Ulu Muhammad. In 1552, after the capture of Kazan by Tsar Ivan the Terrible, the Kazan Khanate ceased to exist, and its territories were annexed to the Russian Empire.


In 1437 the former Golden Horde Khan Ulug-Muhammed was defeated in an internecine struggle, giving the throne to the Crimean Khan Sayyid-Ahmad I, fled from the Crimea and in the fall he migrated to the Volga, where the following year he captured the city of Kazan, expelling the Khan Ali-bey from there. After taking Kazan, Ulug-Muhammed proclaimed himself an independent khan, thereby establishing a new military-feudal state. Next to the Old Kazan, unequipped and poorly fortified, the new khan built the New Kazan, which became the capital of the new khanate (according to other sources, the New Kazan was founded in 1402 by Altyn-Bek, and under Ulug-Muhammed significantly expanded and strengthened). It is important to note that from the time of Batu in the Bulgarsky ulus was a summer headquarters of the Golden Horde khans. This indicates that the Kazan yurt could act as a new center of the state, and Ulug-Muhammed did not lose hope of restoring power in the Golden Horde.

Relations with the Moscow principality and domestic policy

Under Khan Ulu Muhammad and his son Mahmud an active foreign policy was conducted. The Kazanis made campaigns on Russian lands. Already in 1439 Ulu Muhammad Khan came to Moscow and besieged it, but eleven days later retreated, sacking Kolomna and several other Russian cities on the way. In 1444 Khan attacked the principality of Nizhny Novgorod and Ryazan, and in 1445 smashed the Russian army at Suzdal and captured the Grand Duke Basil II himself, imposing tribute on the Moscow principality. From about the same time the name of Ulu Muhammad is not mentioned in the sources.

In 1445, Khan Mahmud expelled the brothers Yakub and Kasim from Kazan, took the throne and ruled until 1467. During his reign, peaceful relations with Moscow were established and the administrative and political structure of the Kazan Khanate took shape. However, in 1446 and 1448 Mahmud Khan made campaigns against the Moscow principality, seeking payment of tribute. He undertook campaigns to the east and northeast, which ended in the subjugation of Vyatka, Udmurts and several other peoples. Under Mahmud, the eastern borders of the Kazan Khanate reached the Urals.

After Mahmud's death in 1467, his eldest son Khalil became khan, who put the Khanate of Kazan under the threat of two wars at once. He tore up and violently trampled on the letter sent to him by Ivan III, and also insulted the Nogai ambassador. But a year later khan died suddenly, and the throne was taken by his brother Ibrahim, but the nobility organized a conspiracy against him, and to the throne was invited Meshchersky appanage prince Kasim, the uncle of khan Ibrahim.

With the support of Grand Prince Ivan III of Moscow, Kasim undertook a campaign to Kazan, but was defeated in 1467. The Russo-Kazan war (1467-1469) ended with the conclusion of peace, there was an exchange of prisoners.

In 1470-ies the internal situation of the Kazan Khanate strengthened, it began to expand its possessions in the Upper Kama region and in the Vyatka region (the campaign in 1478 on the town of Khlynov). In response to Ibrahim Khan's actions, Ivan III moved on Kazan and came close to its walls. As a result, peace was made. After the death of khan Ibrahim in 1479 in the Kazan Khanate began an internecine struggle, which was won by Ibrahim's son Ilham, who drove his brother Mohammed-Amin, a claimant to the throne. The latter, having enlisted the support of Moscow, began a war against Ilham (the campaign of 1482).

Presumably in 1484-1485. Muhammad-Amin occupied Kazan, but was soon overthrown. In response to the strengthening of Ilham's power in 1487, a campaign of Russian troops to Kazan was organized, which ended with its capture after a long siege and the deposition of the Khan.

During the reign of Khan Muhammad-Amin, the Khanate of Kazan was actually under Moscow's protectorate and pursued a single foreign policy with Moscow, in particular, it fought against the Big Horde in 1493. The Kazan Khanate was not included in the Russian state, as it would have been contrary to the allied relations with the Crimean Khanate at that time.

Khan Mohammed-Amin limited the power of the Diwan, which caused an explosion of discontent among the nobility in 1495. He was eventually expelled from the throne. The Karachibeks Kul-Muhammad, Urak, Sadyr and Agish enthroned the Siberian prince Mamuk of the Shiban clan. But khan Mamuk decided to act by terror and incited a majority of Kazanians against him. That's why when khan started his campaign against Arsky principality, a part of Kazan troops left him and returned to Kazan, after that karachibeks proclaimed khan Mamuk deposed and didn't let him in. In 1496 the younger brother of Mohammed-Amin, Abdul-Latif, who had previously lived in the Russian state, was placed on the khan's throne. He also tried to limit the political influence of the nobility (in 1499 he suppressed a rebellion led by Karachibek Urak), which led to a conflict with the aristocrats. In 1502 ulug karachibek Kul-Muhammad deposed Abdul-Latif and with the help of Russian ambassadors achieved the return to Kazan of Khan Muhammad-Amin, who soon undermined the political (the execution of Kul-Muhammad in 1502) and economic (changes in the land tenure) influence of the big nobility and increased the supreme power.

In 1505-1507. Muhammed-Amin inflicted two serious defeats on the Moscow forces near Kazan, concluded a number of peace agreements with Moscow (1507, 1508, 1512, 1516) and restored equal and good-neighborly relations between the Kazan Khanate and the Russian state. After the death of Mohammed-Amin in December 1518, the Divan led by ulug karachibek Bulat Shirin in 1519 enthroned Kasim Khan Shah-Ali of Kazan, who promised to preserve the privileges of the nobility. However, the increasing influence of Russian advisors in the khanate and attempts to limit the power of karachibeks caused a new conspiracy of the nobility and the expulsion of the khan.

In 1521 the Crimean Sultan Sahib-Girei was enthroned on the throne of Kazan with the support of his mother, Tsarina Nur-Sultan. In August 1521 the forces of Khan made a military march to Nizhny Novgorod, Murom, Klin, Meshchersk and Vladimir lands and joined the army of the Crimean Khan Mehmed Giray at Kolomna. After which they besieged Moscow and forced the Grand Duke of Moscow Vasily III to sign a peace treaty. In the end the Russian state was forced to pay tribute to the Kazan Khanate.

In 1523, Sahib-Giray again began a war with Moscow and Astrakhan, but could not achieve success. Fearing a new attack, Sahib-Giray sent an ambassador to his brother, the Crimean Khan Saadet Giray, asking him to send guns, cannons and janissaries to Kazan, but he refused to help his younger brother. Then, in the spring of 1524 Sahib Giray applied for help to the Turkish sultan Suleiman, declaring that he recognized himself a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, but he did not send help.

In the spring of 1524 Prince Vasily III organized a new great campaign to the Kazan Khanate. When Russian army of 150 thousand men approached Kazan, Sahib-Giray fled from Kazan to Crimea, leaving his 13-year old nephew Safa-Giray in the capital. With the support of the nobility (Bulat Shirin, Emir Atuch (Otuch), Atalyk Talysh and others) he organized a repulse to the Russian army and in 1526-1528 made peace with Moscow. He recognized the Khanate of Kazan as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire.

In 1530 the Russian government broke the peace treaty and began a campaign against Kazan. However, the Kazanians, with the help of Nogai and Astrakhan troops, defeated the Russian regiments. The new strengthening of Khan's power led to a revolt of the nobility, with the support of Moscow. In 1531 Safa-Girey was expelled and his supporters were executed. Pro-Moscow tuned divan led by khanbike Gauharshad, Bulat Shirin and murza Kichi-Ali in 1531 invited khan Kasimov Dzhan-Ali to the Kazan throne, but the real power was with Gauharshad who was appointed under him as a regent. Soon, with the consent of the Moscow government, khan married Suyumbika, the daughter of Nogai murza Yusuf. Marriage abolished the regency of Gauharshad, as it attested the majority of Dzhan-Ali.

After the death of Vasily III, grand duke of Moscow, in 1533 the influence of Moscow in the Kazan Khanate weakened dramatically, which caused a revolt of the nobility against the policies of the khan and his entourage. Bulat Shirin and Gauharshad overthrew khan Dzhan-Ali in 1535 and Safa-Giray was again enthroned, who after the death of Dzhan-Ali took Suyumbike as his wife.

Taking advantage of the internecine struggle in Moscow, Safa Giray Khan organized a successful raid on the Russian state (1536-1537). With the increase of his power the discontent of the aristocracy grew, which had negotiations with Moscow about the change of the governor in the Khanate in 1541 and 1545. In response, khan Safa-Giray executed some of the nobles of Kazan, and thus opposed the Kazan nobility; was overthrown in 1545 as a result of a new conspiracy (led by Chura Narykov, Seyid Beyurgan and bey Kadysh).

The conspirators again invited Shah-Ali Khan to the throne. Meanwhile, Safa-Giray fled to his father-in-law, a Nogai biy Yusuf, after which, having received from him an army, in 1546 he returned to Kazan and overthrew Shah-Ali Khan.

After that, khan Safa-Girey executed his opponents - Chura Narykov, Kadysh and others. - and brought to power the Crimean and Nogai beks.

After the death of Safa-Girey in March 1549, power passed to Utyamysh-Girey, his young son by Suyumbike. She became regent under her son and had the support of the Crimean guards led by Oglan Koshchak.

In total, only in the period from 1521 to 1545, according to chronicles, the Khans of Kazan made about forty trips to the Russian lands, mainly in the areas near Nizhny Novgorod, Vyatka, Vladimir, Kostroma, Galich and Murom. In some years there were several such campaigns - from two to four.

Taking advantage of the split among the Kazan nobility and the weakening of the khan's power, the Moscow government began the Kazan campaigns of 1545-1551.

After unsuccessful direct military campaigns of tsar Ivan IV against Kazan in 1551 at the mouth of the Sviyaga River at the approaches to the city was erected fortress Sviyazhsk, which contributed to the transition to the side of the tsar of the population of the mountain side, dissatisfied with the domination of the Crimeans. The government of Suyumbike was isolated. She and her son tried to flee to the Nogai Horde, but was captured. Koshchak and his men were executed, Suyumbike and Utyamysh-Girei were sent to Moscow.

In 1551, with the support of the Kazan aristocracy: Oglan - Khuday-Kul, Karachibek Nur-Ali, Kul Sharif, Emir Beibars (son of Rast) and others. - Shah-Ali again ascended the throne of the Khanate of Kazan.

The Khan's decision to transfer the Mountain Side to the Russian kingdom caused discontent among the nobility. The Great Kurultai on 14 (24) September 1551 demanded from the Khan to return it. Shah-Ali was unwilling to fulfill this demand and, with the support of the Russian garrison, began repressions against the nobility (the sons of Emir Rast and another 70 beks were killed).

After the deposition of Shah-Ali Khan in 1552, the Kazanis selected an embassy to take the oath of allegiance to Tsar Ivan IV. This caused severe discontent among part of the aristocracy and the population of the Kazan Khanate, which the beks Islam bey, Kebek and Alikey (sons of Naryk) took advantage of and revolted against the Russians. March 10, 1552 the Kazan government was headed by bey Chapkin Otuchev, who disrupted the above-mentioned negotiations. After that, the Kazanians destroyed the garrison and started a war with the Russian kingdom, inviting to the throne the Astrakhan Sultan Yadigar-Muhammad.

In 1552 a great campaign of Russian troops to Kazan was launched. After a 49-day siege the city walls were blown up with secretly made trenches, and 2 (13) October 1552 Kazan was taken by storm, a large part of the population was killed, and the city itself burnt. The khan of Kazan was captured and taken to Moscow.

The "Kazan Chronicle" says that after the victory over Kazan, Tsar Ivan IV ordered "to take to his treasury the treasures of the Tsar... the crown of the Tsar, and the rod and banner of Kazan kings, and other royal instruments" (PSRL, vol. 19, p. 467). But from this phrase of the chronicler it follows that the trophies were symbols of khan's power, and it is inappropriate to consider them as symbols of the state.

There is no reliable information about the fate of the named attributes of the khan's power, and descriptions of the khan's banner have not reached our days either. We can assume that the banners were made of silk fabrics, taffeta or kamka, and the edges of the cloth were embroidered with fringe (chuk). Probably there were also images and inscriptions and sayings. Naturally, in the absence of reliable evidence, the desire to unravel the "mystery" of the khan's banner and attributes of khan's power in general causes and will cause all sorts of speculations and disputes in the future.

The Kazan Khanate ceased to exist, and the Middle Volga region was largely annexed to the Russian kingdom. To commemorate the capture of Kazan and the victory over the Kazan Khanate by order of Tsar Ivan IV, the Church of St. Basil (Pokrov na Rvu) was built on Red Square in Moscow.

The Kazan Khanate became part of the Russian kingdom, and the Russian tsar was given the title "Tsar of Kazan. After the capture of Kazan and before the territorial and state reform of Peter I in 1708, the territory of the conquered Kazan Khanate was part of the Kazan uyezd. Administratively governed by the so-called order of the Kazan Palace in Moscow. Also established the Archbishopric of Kazan was at once designated the third most important in the Russian Orthodox Church.

However, the population of the Kazan Khanate did not accept the loss of their statehood and launched a stubborn resistance to the invaders in 1552-1556. By 1557 the last pockets of resistance were suppressed, the Kazan Khanate finally ceased to exist, and its territory became part of the Russian state and was transferred to the Prikaz of the Kazan Palace. The indigenous peoples' yearning for freedom was not suppressed at once, and they attempted several times (1572-1573, 1581-1584) to restore their state.

The Kazan Khanate was established on the territory of the Kazan Ulus (the former territory of Volga Bulgaria). During its heyday (in the second half of the 15th century) the territory of the Kazan Khanate significantly exceeded the size of the Volga Bulgaria and approximately reached 700 thousand square kilometers.

The Khanate occupied the middle course of the Volga and almost the entire Kama basin. In the east the Khanate bordered with the Nogai Horde so that the latter included almost all of Bashkiria (in its current borders), in the west its borders reached the basin of the Sura River, in the north - to Vyatka and Perm land, and in the south-west - according to some researchers, almost to modern Saratov, according to others (Pokhlyobkin V.V.), reached modern Volgograd. Thus, the Kazan Khanate, in addition to the Volga Bulgaria, included the lands of Votyaks, Cheremis, partially Bashkirs, Mordva and Meshchers.

Kazan Khanate consisted of four darags (districts) - Alatskaya, Arskaya, Galitskaya, Zyureyskaya (Chuvash). Later a fifth daruga, Nogai, was added to them. Darugi were divided into ulus, which united the lands of several settlements.

Major cities were Kazan, Alat, Archa, Bolgar, Kashan, Iske-Kazan, Zuri (now Starye Zuri of the Tyulyachi district) and Laesh.

Ethnic composition

Population of the Khanate was multi-ethnic and consisted of the following peoples: Kazan Tatars ("Kazanlylar", "Kazansti Tatars"), Chuvash (about 200 thousand people), Mari (Cheremis), Mordva, Udmurts (Votyaks, Ary) and Bashkirs. In Kazan, since the times of the Golden Horde and before the conquest of Russia, there was a significant community of Armenian-Kypchaks. The main population most often called themselves Kazanians or Muslims on a religious basis. The total population - about 400 thousand people, in the middle of the XVI century was about 450 thousand people

The main population in connection with the establishment of the Tatar dynasty of khans of the Golden Horde on the khan's throne gradually acquire the name "Tatars".

The khans periodically sent their viceroys to the Bashkir lands, although their power was limited to collecting yasak. In addition to that, the Bashkirs were also obliged to serve in the khan's army.

The khan's power was much stronger in the Udmurt lands, where the possessions of numerous representatives of the Kazan nobility were located. The center, from which the Udmurt lands were ruled, was the town of Arsk, where the Khan's aristocracy sat.

The Chuvash lived mainly in the vicinity of the Sviyaga River. In the Chuvash lands there were also possessions of the Tatar nobility, but the Khan's power there was less strong. Most of the population of the region only paid tax (yasak), which was often collected by representatives of the local nobility, and some served in the army. At the head of the centers of Chuvash settlement were the so-called "centenary princes" (çĕrpÿ), who were responsible for collecting yasak and recruiting soldiers for the khan's army in the event of war or a campaign, at the place of Cheboksary from the Golden Horde time and before the foundation of the Russian fortress there was a large craft city.

The ethnic composition influenced the language of the Tatars - to the original Kipchak basis was mixed many Mokshan, Mari, Udmurt, Turkic-Bulgarian, and later Chuvash linguistic elements.

Social composition

In Kazan society the most privileged estates were the nobility and the clergy. The most important persons belonging to the Divan ("karachi") and emirs (ruling princes) possessed the greatest wealth and influence. The title karachi belonged to the heads of the four most noble Tatar clans - Shirin, The title of karachi belonged to the heads of the four noblest Tatar families - Shirin, Bargin, Argyn and Kipchak, and was passed down by inheritance. The karachi by their position were the closest advisers and de facto co-rulers of the Kazan khan.

In the works of the Crimean historian Seyid-Muhammed Riza these two terms (karachi and emirs) are identified. The emirs, coming from the most noble clans of the feudal aristocracy, were extremely few in number. In Kazan aristocrats, the title of father was transmitted only to the eldest son. The other groups of the Kazan nobility were beks, murza and foreign princes. The beks were a step below emirs in the social structure of the Kazan society. The younger sons of beks were murza (contraction from the Arab-Persian "emir-zadeh", lit. - "princely son"). Among the foreign princes the strongest positions were occupied by the so-called "Princes of Ars". There were many Chuvash, Votsk and Cheremiss princes in the Khanate.

The representatives of the Muslim clergy also occupied a privileged position. The spiritual head - seyid - played an important role in the government of the state. The Khan had to take into account his advice and sometimes direct instructions, the head of the state went on foot to meet the seyid riding on a horse, and in official documents the name of the seyid was mentioned before the Khan's name.

The privileged group of people who owned land plots and were exempt from taxes and duties were called tarkhans. The representatives of the military class included oglans and Cossacks. Oglans were commanders of mounted units and had the right to participate in the kurultai. The Cossacks were simple warriors. Sometimes there is a division of them into "court" (serving in the capital) and "backyard" (serving in the province). The numerous and well-organized officials had a special privileged status.

The representatives of the tax-privileged class included simple urban and rural residents: merchants, artisans, freelance workers, peasants. Sahib-Giray's label mentioned 13 types of taxes and duties that had to be paid by these population groups, but from which the tarkhans were exempted: yasak (10% income tax, clan (tribute), salyg, kulush, kultyka, bach, haraj harajat (trade tax), sala-haraji (village tax), yer-hylyasy (land tax), tyutynsyany (tax from the pipe), susun (food), gulufe (forage), fast. Other taxes are also known to exist: tamga (duty on goods), weight fee and others.

Landowners' plots were tilled by dependent peasants ("kishi"). Also, landlords employed prisoner-slaves to work the land and assigned them to their estates. According to S. Herberstein, after six years such a slave became free, but had no right to leave the territory of the state.

The head of state was Khan Chingizid. His closest advisors (emirs) were commanders of troops. The Council (Divan), in which "karachi" advisers sat, formally limited the khan's power. Often khans turned out to be only toys in the hands of rival parties of the Tatar nobility. The Divan was a legislative body. The position of "karachi" was hereditary. The highest posts were hereditary, lifelong and irremovable. This created a certain inflexibility of the state machine, which eventually led to its weakness. The aristocratic system in the Kazan Khanate took pronounced conservative forms.

The highest legislative and constituent body was the kurultai, convened in exceptional circumstances. It was attended by representatives of the three most important strata of the khanate population: clergy, army and farmers. In Russian sources this kurultai was characteristically called "The whole land of Kazan".

The ruling elite consisted of representatives of the Horde nobility. The ruling elite consisted of representatives of the Horde nobility. They came from the local or Horde nobility, and later also the Crimean Khanate and the Nogai Horde. Even lower were oglans - commanders of mounted detachments, who commanded simple warriors, "Cossacks". The "Cossacks," unlike the larger landowners - emirs, beks and oglans - had only small plots of land, which they cultivated independently. Large and sometimes small holdings were exempt from taxes. The main type of feudal possession in the khanate was the suyurgal - a plot of land given to the owner on condition of service and not to be inherited. In spite of this, in fact, many possessions of the khanate were hereditary, although the khan had the right to transfer the possession to another person on the death of the owner. The Muslim clergy also played a major role in the political life of the khanate and had enormous influence. The clergy also had large properties and lands. The Kazan government used the hundred-dozen organization created by the Mongols to collect tribute.

To govern a state such as the Kazan Khanate, the government needed an extensive staff of officials. The official system was inherited by the Tatars from the Mongol state. All settlements or provinces had persons in charge of collecting taxes and duties for the khan. There were numerous outposts and customs offices on the territory of the Khanate. With the help of scribes regularly conducted a census of the Khanate population.

The main territory of the khanate was inhabited by sedentary population, which inherited the traditions of agriculture from the time of the existence of the Volga Bulgaria. Steam farming was widespread in the khanate. Ploughmen used a wooden plough with a metal ploughshare. The inhabitants of the Khanate grew rye, spelt, barley and oats. Farming was the main occupation not only for the Tatar population, but also for the Chuvash and Finno-Ugric peoples (Cheremis, Votyaks, and Mordva). Farming was extensive in character. Agricultural land tenure was based on hereditary property. In the forest zone, in addition to other trades, hunting and boarding were widespread. The inhabitants of the forest zone lived in few fortified settlements. Khan's power there was limited only to the collection of yasak, which was carried out by the local authorities. The estates of the khan and the nobility were located in the agricultural regions. In addition to the Tatars and Chuvash, Russian prisoners toiled in the Khan's economy. As for the commercial economy, its main branches were hunting and fishing. In the forests there were favorable conditions for the development of beekeeping. Leatherwork played an important role among the branches of handicraft production.

Another important occupation of the inhabitants of the khanate was trade, which was greatly facilitated by the fortunate geographical location of the khanate. From ancient times the Volga region was one of the centers of trade exchange. The Volga cities acted as intermediaries in the international exchange of goods. Foreign trade dominated over domestic trade in the Khanate. The center of foreign trade was the capital of the Khanate - Kazan. The state had close and strong trade ties with Russian kingdom, Persia and Turkestan. The urban population was engaged in clay products, handicrafts made of wood and metal, leather, armor, plow and jewelry; there was an active trade of people from Central Asia, the Caucasus and Russia. A special place in the Khanate occupied the slave trade. The object of this trade was mainly captives captured during raids, in particular women sold to harems of Eastern countries. The main markets were Tashayak Bazar in Kazan and the fair on a large island on the Volga opposite the Kazan Kremlin, later named Marquis (now flooded due to the creation of a water reservoir). A whole range of crafts in the Kazan Khanate also depended heavily on the presence of a large number of slaves (mostly Christians). The non-native population of the outskirts was not involved in commodity exchange, since this environment was dominated exclusively by subsistence farming. The inhabitants of the outskirts did not trade, but gave away as tribute the products produced or mined by them. The Tatar farming population, unlike the population of the periphery, was involved in commodity exchange.

Sunni Islam was the dominant religion in the Kazan Khanate. The head of the Muslim clergy was a seid, the highest official who was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. There could be several seids, while there was only one head of the clergy. After the khan, the head of the clergy was the chief official of the state. One of the most famous Seyids was Imam Kul Sharif, who died with his disciples in battle during the storming of Kazan by Russian troops in 1552. Among the clerics in the khanate were sheikhs (preachers of Islam), mullahs, imams (clerics who performed services in mosques), dervishes (monks), haji (people who made pilgrimage to Mecca), hafizi (professional reciters who know the Koran by heart), and danishmendas (teachers). In addition, there were also sheikh-zadeh and mullah-zadeh, the disciples and sons of sheikhs and mullahs. The clergy, among other things, were also engaged in educating the population.

Sufism, which entered the country from Turkestan, was also widespread in the khanate. One of the principles of religious policy of the Kazan khanate was religious tolerance, which was conditioned by the law of Islam "no compulsion in religion" (Sura "Bakara", ayat 256), the multi-confessional character of the trade and crafts population, as well as the traditions of the Volga Bulgars.

During the wars with Russia, the Kazanians limited themselves to attacks on Russian border towns, nevertheless they often managed to develop a successful offensive and invade the internal areas of the Moscow state. The main kind of troops was the numerous cavalry. Infantry units were few. Kazanians did not have a large number of artillery. The main mass of cavalry were the druzhina (brigade) of appanage princes, called in case of need. The tactics of the Kazan soldiers was reduced to maneuvering and quick strikes of the cavalry. From time to time raids were made on neighboring western regions, which were under the power of Moscow princes, to take captives (slaves), attack the estates, etc. The capital of the khanate was a first-class fortress protected by artillery.

In the Kazan Khanate, first of all in its capital, the construction business and architecture, including monumental ones, were widely developed. This is confirmed by the reports of eyewitnesses, the data of scribe books of the mid-16th century, some outstanding architectural monuments, preserved in the Kazan Kremlin, in particular, the building of the former Nurali mosque, as well as foundations of the then structures discovered during archaeological investigations.

Stone carving was a mass type of craft, brought to the level of art. The highest level of development was achieved by jewelry, the manufacture of various ornaments made of precious metals combined with semi-precious stones.

The Kazan khanate had a widespread Arabic script, which appeared in the region in the early period of the Volga Bulgars and was the basis of the Golden Horde literary system. As before, people were educated in mektebs and madrassahs, probably, there were higher-type madrassahs, such as famous Kul Sherif madrassah. Literacy among the population of the Khanate was quite widespread.

Eastern poetry was widely known in the Kazan Khanate. The Kazan Khanate also had its own poets, among them: Muhammed-Amin (aka Khan, late XV - early XVI centuries), Muhamedyar, Emmi Kamal, Garif-bek, Maksudi, Kul Sharif (aka the famous Kazan seyid, first half of the XVI century). There were many other court and folk poets in Kazan. The peak of the poetic heritage of the Kazan Khanate is the work of Mukhamedyar, who in his poems "Tukhvai-mardan" ("The Gift of Men" - 1539) and "Nury-sodur" ("Light of Hearts" - 1542) preaches kindness and justice, and faithful service to the people.


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  10. ^ Il termine "nero" nella cultura turca era spesso usato per riferirsi alle persone comuni e non era inteso come tipologia razziale
  11. ^ "Kazan War". Tatar Encyclopedia. (2002). Kazan: Tatarstan Republic Academy of Sciences Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia.
  12. ^ Rywkin, Michael (1976). "The Prikaz of the Kazan Court: First Russian Colonial Office". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 18 (3): 293–300. doi:10.1080/00085006.1976.11091457. JSTOR 40866921.
  13. ^ "Kazan War". Tatar Encyclopaedia (in Tatar). Kazan: The Republic of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia. 2002.
  14. ^ "Kazan Khanate". Tatar Encyclopaedia (in Tatar). Kazan: The Republic of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia. 2002.
  15. ^ Lux-Wurm, Pierre-Charles (2001). Les drapeaux de l'Islam: de Mahomet à nos jours. Paris: Buchet-Chastel. ISBN 9782283018132.
  16. ^ The designation "black" in Turkic culture was often used to refer to commoners, and not intended as a racial designation; on this point see also Khazars

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