Treaty of Paris (1814)

Eyridiki Sellou | Dec 4, 2023

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The Treaty of Paris of 1814 is one of the most important peace treaties in European history, also known as the "first peace of Paris" after the total defeat of Napoleon I. It is the one that essentially led the then rulers of Europe, just a few months later, to the Congress of Vienna. This treaty was concluded between the anti-Napoleon rulers of Russia, Austria, England and Prussia on the one hand and France on the other, through the proxies of these rulers, at the time of the armistice of the Napoleonic Wars on 23 May of that year.

The peace talks had begun on 9 May by Talleyrand with the Allies and ended on 30 May with the conclusion of the treaty in which the terms of the armistice, known as the "Pact of Solomon", were included, marking the end of the Napoleonic wars. This treaty, which was drawn up in French and contained 33 articles, regulated the restoration of the reign of the House of Bourbon, with the return of King Louis XI of France, as well as various issues relating to the territorial regime in general, as it had been established with the resignation of France from its new possessions. These matters as issues were covered by a large number of articles on which there were many disagreements and differences of opinion leading to bilateral treaties and constant amendments. Article 32 thus provided for an international conference to be convened in Vienna within two months, with the participation of all those who had taken part in the Napoleonic wars, in order to agree on a final settlement.

Among the questions of territorial status settled by the present Treaty, the most important are:

On the contrary, one of the issues that raised the most claims and disagreements was the question of the Ionian Islands, which had already been occupied by the English, having expelled the French. A non-territorial question that was addressed by the treaty was the freedom of navigation of the Rhine River, up to the point where it is navigable having become a geographical frontier, and the French slave trade, setting a five-year time limit for its complete elimination. Finally this treaty was signed by Russia, Prussia, Austria, Austria, England, and France as well as Portugal, Sweden and a month later Spain.

As mentioned above, the issue of the Ionian Islands, as a territorial issue, was the one that raised the most claims and disagreements and as a result it was decided to discuss it again at the next session of the Hegemonic Council.

Specifically on this issue, of particular interest to the Greeks, the plenipotentiaries of Tsar Alexander I of Russia proposed that the Ionian Islands should become an independent, neutral and sovereign state under the name "Ionian State" which would include the seven main islands, the adjacent islands and their sea area, as well as the opposite coasts of Epirus, with the cities of Parga, Preveza, Vonitsa and Vouthrotos. This proposal was from the outset and categorically rejected by the Austrian Prince Metternich on the grounds that, as the products of the remains of the dissolved Venetian Republic, of which Austria is considered the legal successor of the possessions of that time, they should be transferred to Austria. Besides this claim, however, there were others, such as on the part of the King of Bavaria, who proposed that they should be given as a principality to his son-in-law Prince Bacharnes for his services in the wars against Napoleon. But Pope Pius VII also demanded, in order to keep the Ionian Islands under Catholicism, that the Order of St. John of Jerusalem should be established there and administered by him.

It is noted, however, that the Senate of the Ionian Islands had also sent a document to the representatives of the Emperors and Kings of the council, in view of the settlement of the territorial issues of Europe, which included the following basic points - proposals.

The document concluded with the wish that the Tsar of Russia would intercede with the other Sovereigns for the success of the above at that critical period.

Eventually France relinquished its claims and sovereignty ("suzeraineté"), England claimed "temporary occupation" and the following year the restoration of the Free State of 1800 was decided, but with an English Lord Commissioner.


  1. Treaty of Paris (1814)
  2. Συνθήκη των Παρισίων (1814)
  3. ^ a b Büsch 1992, p. 72.
  4. ^ a b c d Malettke 2009, p. 66.
  5. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Paris, Treaties of" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 822–823.
  6. ^ a b Büsch 1992, p. 73.
  7. Εκδοτική τ.ΙΑ΄, σ.375
  8. 2,0 2,1 Χ. Νικολάου σ.55
  9. Σπ. Βερύκιος σ.63-65
  10. Χ. Νικολάου σ.56
  11. Κλ. Νικολαΐδης σ.280
  12. a b c et d A. Malet et J. Isaac, Révolution, Empire et première moitié du XIXe siècle, librairie Hachette, 1929, p. 386.
  13. a b et c A. Maltet et J. Isaac, Révolution, Empire et première moitié du XIXe siècle, librairie Hachette, 1929, p. 404.
  14. No se reconoció la independencia de Haití proclamada en 1804.

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