Hank Williams

Orfeas Katsoulis | Jan 10, 2024

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Hiram "Hank" King Williams (Mount Olive, September 17, 1923 - Oak Hill, January 1, 1953) was an American singer-songwriter.

He became an icon of country music and rock 'n' roll, and one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. A major songwriter in the honky tonk genre, he gave birth to numerous hits, and his charismatic performances, combined with an original style, increased his fame. His compositions make up the hard core of country and as many are considered pop, gospel, and rock and roll classics. His son Hank Williams Jr., daughter Jett Williams, and grandchildren Hank Williams III and Holly Williams are professional songwriters.


Hiram King Williams was born in 1923 in the small out-of-the-way town of Mount Olive, about twelve miles southwest of Georgiana, Alabama. He was born with a spinal deformity, spina bifida; the resulting pain would be one of the reasons he abused alcohol and drugs in his life. His parents were Elonzo "Lon" Huble Williams, a train conductor and World War I veteran, and Lillybelle Williams. The family also included his older sister Irene.


Hank's childhood is severely marked by the absence of his father, who remains hospitalized for virtually eight years in Pensacola Hospital due to facial paresis caused by an aneurysm. The Williams family moved to Georgiana and lived through the years of the Great Depression thanks to the hard night shifts their mother worked at the hospital and the odd jobs of Hiriam and his sister. Despite everything they survived well in those hard years thanks to their father's veteran's pension.

In 1931 the Williams family moved to Fountain, Alabama, to their aunt and uncle Walter and Alice McNeil, and their son, J.C. six years older than Hiram. Here he quickly acquired two aptitudes that would mark his life: he learned from Aunt Alice to play the guitar and from his cousin J.C. to drink whiskey immoderately.

After a few years the Williams returned to Georgiana where Hank would meet black bluesman Rufus Payne, who was working as a street musician. The latter would surely be a most important figure for the future country star, whose undisputed mentor he was. In 1934 the family moved to Greenville, where Lillie opened her own business and Hank was able to spend more time with Payne (who was indeed from Greenville), with whom he sometimes spent whole nights playing. In 1937, after a fight between Hank and his gym teacher, his mother decides to move. The Williams family then moved to Montgomery, Alabama.

Early years

In July 1937 the two families, Williams and McNeil, opened a boarding house together. It was during these times that Hiriam permanently changed his name to Hank, which he felt was more suitable for a musical career. After school and on weekends Hank played his "Silverston" on the sidewalk in front of WSFA radio, and it did not take long for the station's producers to notice him, and from the first show on the air under the name "Singin Kid" to the first contract (twice a week for $15) was a short step. In August 1938 his father Lon was discharged briefly in order to attend his son's birthday, but Hank never hid the fact that he considered himself fatherless.

Drifting Cowboys

A good radio contract and considerable success soon allowed Hank to form his own backing band, the Drifting Cowboys consisting of guitarist Braxton Schuffert, fiddler Freddie Beach, and comedian Smith "Hezzy" Adair. Hank closed with school in 1939, devoting himself completely to the band, which performed for Alabama. Lillie Williams became a skilled manager for the band, arranging dates farther and farther away in the U.S.; meanwhile, Hank returned to Montgomery every weekend for the radio show.

The country's entry into World War II creates major problems for the band, as all members are called into service, and replacements refuse to play with Hank because of his serious problems with alcohol. His idol, Roy Acuff, to warn him about alcohol, told him one day, "You've got a million-dollar voice, boy, but a dime-a-dozen brain." Despite Acuff's warnings, Hank continued to drink to the point of getting fired in 1942 from WSFA.


Nella sua breve carriera Hank Williams ebbe 12 canzoni al numero 1 della Hit Parade statunitense - Lovesick Blues, I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry, Long Gone Lonesome Blues, Why Don't You Love Me? Moanin' the Blues, Cold, Cold Heart, Hey Good Lookin', Jambalaya (On the Bayou) , I'll Never Get Out of This World Alive, Kaw-Liga, Your Cheatin' Heart, Take These Chains From My Heart - ed innumerevoli brani nella top ten.

In 1943 Williams met Audrey Shepard, and the two were married a few years later. She also becomes his manager, creating his celebrity. In 1946 Hank released two singles for Sterling Rc's, Honky Tonkin' and Never Again, both of which were successful. Williams then signs with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Records with whom he records Move It On Over, to resounding success. He later moved to Louisiana and gave birth to a few decent tunes; but in 1949 he released his version of Lovesick Blues (a Rex Griffin classic), which became one of the biggest country hits of all time, sold across the country. That same year he played at the then temple of made-in-the-USA music, the Grand Ole Opry, and was the first singer of all time to be asked to perform as many as six encores. On that occasion he reassembled what would become the most famous Drifting Cowboys lineup, with Bob McNett on guitar, Hillious Butrum on double bass, Jerry Rivers on fiddle, and Don Helms on lead guitar. Also in 1949 Hank gives birth to hits such as Lovesick Blues, which includes Wedding Bells, Mind Your Own Business, You're Gonna Change (Or I'm Gonna Leave) and My Bucket's Got a Hole and Audrey instead gives birth to Randall Hank Williams, later known as Hank Williams Jr.

Luke the Drifter

In 1950, Williams began recording under the stage name of "Luke The Drifter," a nickname given to him because of his habit of identifying with characters with difficult moral values, often reciting his songs over typical crooner singing. This anti-commercial choice made popular DJs hesitant to air his tunes, significantly affecting the singer's sales but leading Hank to have "Luke the Drifter" as his alter ego for songs with thornier themes. From these times are the hits My Son Calls Another Man Daddy, They'll Never Take Her Love from Me, Why Should We Try Anymore?, Nobody's Lonesome for Me, Long Gone Lonesome Blues, Why Don't You Love Me?, Moanin' the Blues and I Just Don't Like This Kind of Livin'. Dear John was a moderate success, but its B-side Cold,Cold Heart remained perhaps one of his most celebrated songs, aided in part by Tony Bennett's 1951 pop version, the first in Williams' long line of noncountry songs. Cold, Cold Heart saw covers by, among others, Guy Mitchell, Teresa Brewer, Dinah Washington, Lucinda Williams, Cowboy Junkies, Frankie Laine, Jo Stafford, and Norah Jones. From the same year is the big hit Crazy Heart.

The legend of Hank Williams undoubtedly has two sides. While he sings of his soul as a drunken and unrepentant brawler (Honky Tonkin') or a wanderer without purpose or reason (Lost Highway), in other lyrics the heartbreaking remorse of a man who lost his way I Saw The Light shines through.

The decline

Hank's life soon proved incompatible with success. His marriage, turbulent from the start, took little time to crumble, and alcoholism was compounded by addiction to morphine and other painkillers, substances Williams also took because of his constant back pain caused by spina bifida. In 1952 he separated from Audrey, moving back in with his mother, while continuing to churn out hits such as Half as Much, Jambalaya (On the Bayou), Settin' the Woods on Fire, You Win Again and I'll Never Get Out of This World Alive. The brief relationship with Bobby Jett resulted in second-born daughter Jett Williams, who would never see her father.

In October 1952 Williams was fired from the Grand Ole Opry. On October 18 he was married at the New Orleans Municipal Auditorim to Billie Jean Jones, a ceremony attended by 14,000 paying spectators. Shortly thereafter the Drifting Cowboys decided to disband, as Hank was costing more in alcohol than the organizers were paying for shows.

On January 1, 1953 Williams is scheduled to play in Canton, Ohio, but his flight is canceled because of bad weather. In poor physical condition from whiskey and painkillers, he hires a driver, 17-year-old Carl Curr, but the latter, seeing Williams' condition, before leaving the old Andrew Johnson Hotel, has a doctor called in who injects him with two syringes of a solution of cobalamin (common vitamin B12) and 6 milligrams of morphine, causing a lethal mix.

Shortly thereafter, the driver found in the back seat the lifeless body of Williams, a fragile man who had changed the way music was conceived, an artist who, in the days of tuxedos, martini cocktails and the detached style of the various Frank Sinatras and Dean Martins, spoke of the America that had felt 1929 on its shoulders and in its pockets, of the vagabonds and the desperate, the pure hero of the mediocre and the ignorant; an artist who sought redemption for what life had inflicted on him. On the seat on which Hank died were found a few cans of beer and the never-recorded song Then The Fateful Day Came ("So The Fateful Day Has Come").

Williams' last published song, nefariously titled I'll Never Get Out of This World Alive ("I'll Never Get Out of This World Alive") was released five days after his death, coinciding with the birth of his illegitimate daughter Jett Williams. His widow Williams married country star Johnny Horton in September of that year.

Alabama Governor Gordon Persons officially proclaimed September 21 as "Hank Williams Day" (Hank Williams Day). On the day of the first celebration, in 1954, a Hank Williams monument was unveiled in the Cramton Bowl baseball stadium. The monument was later placed at Williams' burial site. During the ceremony, Ferlin Husky performed a cover of the song I Saw the Light.

Throughout his career, Williams had numerous songs at the number one position on the sales charts (Lovesick Blues, Long Gone Lonesome Blues, Why Don't You Love Me, Moanin' the Blues, Cold, Cold Heart, Hey, Good Lookin', Jambalaya (On the Bayou), I'll Never Get Out of This World Alive, Kaw-Liga, Your Cheatin' Heart, and Take These Chains from My Heart), and many others made it into the top ten. This made him one of the most popular and successful American songwriters of the period.

On February 8, 1960, star number 6400 on the Hollywood Walk of Fame was dedicated to Williams. In 1961, he was one of the first three musicians to be inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame, along with Jimmie Rodgers and Fred Rose. In 1985, he was inducted into the Alabama Music Hall of Fame.

Downbeat Magazine judged him the most popular country and Western musician in history. In 1977, the national organization "CB truck drivers," chose the song Your Cheatin' Heart as its all-time favorite song. In 1987, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, inducted Hank Williams into the "Early Influence" category, among artists significant to the birth of Rock and Roll. In 2003, the CMT television network, placed him second on its list of the "40 Greatest Country Artists in History." In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine, placed him #74 on its list of the "100 Best Artists in Music History." The website "Acclaimedmusic," which year by year judges the best artists and records in music history released during that period, places Hank Williams first in the 1940-1949 decade, with the song I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry.

Many Rock and Roll pioneers, such as Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Bob Dylan, Jerry Lee Lewis, Merle Haggard, and Ricky Nelson, performed covers of Hank Williams songs early in their careers.

In 2011, Hank Williams' 1949 song Lovesick Blues was inducted into the Recording Academy Grammy Hall of Fame. In the same year, the collected album Hank Williams: The Complete Mother's Best Recordings....Plus! earned a Grammy nomination for "Best Historical Album" ("Best Historical Album"). In 1999, Williams was inducted into the Native American Music Hall of Fame.

On April 12, 2010, Williams received a special nomination for the Pulitzer Prize. On that occasion he was called "the songwriter who transformed country music into one of the highest expressions of American music." Following in his footsteps, son Hank Williams Jr., daughter Jett Williams, grandson Hank Williams III, and granddaughters Hilary Williams and Holly Williams have all become celebrated country stars.

On October 4, 2011, an album entitled The Lost Notebooks of Hank Williams was released, which contains numerous covers, performed by various artists, of songs that Hank wrote in his lifetime but failed to officially release. The tracks include the song, left unfinished, that Hank was writing before he died. Artists who took part in the record include: Bob Dylan, Alan Jackson, Norah Jones, Jack White, Lucinda Williams, Vince Gill, Rodney Crowell, Patty Loveless, Levon Helm, Jakob Dylan, Sheryl Crow, and Merle Haggard.

There are numerous tributes to the figure of Hank Williams; below, some of the most important ones will be listed:


There are numerous tribute albums dedicated to Hank Williams, released by various artists, including: Connie Stevens, Floyd Cramer, George Jones, Glen Campbell, Freddy Fender, Moe Bandy, Ronnie Hawkins, Charlie Rich, Del Shannon, Sammy Kershaw, Trio Los Panchos, Roy Orbison, and Hank Locklin. A few examples of albums that pay homage to the figure of Hank Williams:


In 1981, Drifting Cowboys steel guitarist Don Helms recorded, along with Hank Williams Jr. the song The Ballad of Hank Williams. The song was sung in the same key as The Battle of New Orleans, a song popularized by Johnny Horton. The chorus of the song, "So he fired my ass and he fired Jerry Rivers and he fired everybody just as hard as he could go. He fired Old Cedric and he fired Sammy Pruett And he fired some people that he didn't even know," is an ironic reference to an actual incident that happened to Williams.

In 1991, country artist Alan Jackson, released the song Midnight in Montgomery, a song in which an imaginary meeting between the artist and the ghost of Hank Williams is described at the latter's burial place.

Marty Stuart, country singer-songwriter, paid homage to Williams in the song Me And Hank And Jumping Jack Flash. The song deals with a similar theme to Midnight in Montgomery.

In 1983, country artist David Allan Coe released The Ride, a song about a young guitarist's encounter with the specter of Hank Williams, intent on driving a Cadillac near Nashville: " ... You don't have to call me mister, mister, the whole world called me Hank."

The songs that pay homage to Hank Williams are:

Altre canzoni sono: Hank, It Will Never Be the Same Without You, Hank Williams Meets Jimmie Rodgers, Tribute to Hank Williams, Hank and Lefty Raised My Country Soul, Hank Williams Will Live Forever, The Ghost of Hank Williams, In Memory of Hank Williams, Thanks Hank, Hank's Home Town, Good Old Boys Like Me (Hank Williams and Tennessee Williams), Why Ain't I Half as Good as Old Hank (Since I'm Feeling All Dead Anyway)? , The Last Letter e l'album di Charley Pride, There's a Little Bit of Hank in Me (Brackett 2000, p. 219-22).

Separate mention deserves the song I've Done Everything Hank Did But Die, composed by songwriter Keith Whitley and never officially released. The recording supposedly dates from the time when Whitley was 29 years old, the same age Williams was when he died. Just like his idol, Whitley also had to battle alcoholism until death took him, at the age of 33.

On the album Show Me Your Tears, Frank Black recounts the tragedy of Hank Williams' death in the song Everything Is New.

Hank Williams' story was first brought to the movies in the 1964 feature film Your Voice and Your Heart (Your Cheatin' Heart), directed by Gene Nelson and starring George Hamilton, Susan Oliver and Red Buttons.

The film was released in U.S. theaters on November 4, 1964, and grossed a total of $2,500,000. It was initially released in black and white, the only version available until 1990, when a color version was made and released on January 1, 1991, on the thirty-eighth anniversary of Hank Williams' death.

The cast consisted of:

The DVD version of the film was released in the United States on November 9, 2010.

In 2011, the feature film The Last Ride, directed by Harry Thomason, was released in theaters, focusing on the last four days of Hank Williams' life. In the film, actor Henry Thomas plays Hank Williams, while Jesse James plays Silas, Williams' personal driver, and holds a poor score of 44 percent on the Rotten Tomatoes site.

The cast of the film presents:

Another film about Hank Williams is Hank Williams First Nation, directed by Aaron James Sorensen.

In 2015, starring in I Saw The Light, Marc Abraham's film about Williams' life, which was released in Italy in April 2016, is Tom Hiddleston.

Other tributes

In 2003, a musical about Hank Williams was produced, titled Hank Williams: Lost Highway, produced by David Fishelson and directed by Randal Myler. The musical won several awards, including several nominations such as "Best Musical" and "Best Off-Broadway Musical." Actor Jason Petty received an Obie Award. The show received a positive review from Rolling Stone magazine and a rave review in New York Magazine, among other accolades.

Hank Williams: The Show He Never Gave is a drama about Hank Williams, written by Maynard Collins, starring Sneezy Waters. A Canadian TV movie, it was broadcast on December 31, 1980. Another tribute to Hank Williams is Images of a Country Drifter.

Singer-songwriter Leonard Cohen quotes Hank Williams in Tower of Song, in the verses:

US indie rock band Bright Eyes, talks about Williams' death in the song "Classic Cars," in the verses:

In 2015 the song Honky Tonkin' received the Grammy Hall of Fame Award.

Williams' "specter" lives again in Steve Earle's 2011 novel, Non uscerò vivo da questo mondo, published in Italy the following year by Mondadori.

Music Videos

In 1947, Hank Williams achieved his first major recording success with the song Move It On Over, the first in a long string of hits. The song reached No. 4 on Billboard's country singles chart.

The song is considered very influential in the birth of rock and roll, and inspired the composition of some classics of that genre, such as Rock Around the Clock, brought to success seven years later by Bill Haley. The song tells, very ironically, the story of a man forced to sleep outside his home during the night in his doghouse because his wife refuses to let him into the house.

The song was reinterpreted by many artists, such as Ray Charles, Bill Haley, Tiny Hill and the Hilltoppers, George Thorogood and the Destroyers, and Hank Williams Jr. It was also included in the soundtrack of the video games L.A. Noire and Guitar Hero: Warriors of Rock.

I Saw the Light

I Saw the Light, released by Williams in 1948, is a country gospel song, among the artist's most famous. The singer-songwriter used to use the song as a concert closing.

In fact, the song, at the time of its initial release, was not a commercial success, but over time it gained more and more celebrity, so much so that it was reinterpreted by a multitude of artists and was ranked No. 1 on CMT's list of the "20 Greatest Songs of Faith" in 2005.

Lovesick Blues

In 1949, Hank Williams first reached the No. 1 position on Billboard's chart of best-selling Country & Western singles with the song Lovesick Blues. The song was actually a cover of an old song composed by Cliff Friend and Irving Mills and first appeared in the 1922 musical Oh, Ernest. It became famous in Emmet Miller's 1928 version. Before Williams, the song was recorded by Rex Griffin, in a version that influenced Hank's, who sang the song for the first time in a live performance in 1948.

Initially, the song's producer, Fred Rose, was dissatisfied with Williams' recording, going so far as to call it "the worst thing ever recorded by the songwriter." Williams, by contrast, was immediately confident in the single, which in fact, once released, was an immediate success. At the time, Cashbox named it "the best Hillbilly recording of the year," and today it remains one of the most celebrated country songs in history.

I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry

I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry, is another of Hank Williams' most famous songs. It was first released in 1949 to great acclaim, and later in 1966 as a single. Williams wrote the song inspired by his troubled relationship with his wife Audrey Sheppard. The music critic magazine Rolling Stone included it in its list of the 500 greatest songs in history, at position number 111.

Numerous artists reinterpreted the song, e.g. Johnny Cash, Nick Cave, Bob Dylan, Little Richard, Elvis Presley and many others.

Long Gone Lonesome Blues

In 1950, Hank Williams again achieved the number one spot on Billboard's Hot Country Singles chart, thanks to the song Long Gone Lonesome Blues. The song remained on the chart twenty-three weeks, including five at the top.

In 1964, Hank Williams Jr. made this song his debut single. His version ranked fifth on the best-selling country singles chart at the time. In 1987, Dennis Robbins recorded his own version of it, which ranked 63rd on the same chart.

Why Don't You Love Me

In 1950 the song Why Don't You Love Me, another Williams number one, was released. The song was released as the A-side of the single of the same name, which included as a B-side the song A House Without Love.

Why Don't You Love Me was used in the closing credits of the film The Last Picture Show. The song was reinterpreted in 1969 by Jerry Lee Lewis and by Little Richard and Jimi Hendrix on their album Friends from the Beginning released in 1972. Another famous cover is by the Red Hot Chili Peppers.

Cold, Cold Heart

One of Williams' most popular songs is definitely Cold, Cold Heart, a song considered a honky tonk classic and part of the Great American Songbook.

Williams released the song in 1951, as the B-side of the song Dear John, which ranked eighth on the Billboard chart, as opposed to Cold, Cold Heart, which earned the top spot instead. In the same year, the song was recorded by Tony Bennett in a version that was a great success. Over time, there were many artists who reinterpreted that song, for example, Louis Armstrong, Bill Haley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Norah Jones, Johnny Cash, Nat King Cole, and many others. In the video game Batman: Arkham Origins, the Joker sings an a cappella version of Cold, Cold Heart during the credits as he returns to his cell at Blackgate Penitentiary.

Hey Good Lookin'

The song Hey Good Lookin' was composed by Williams as a variation of Cole Porter's 1942 song, which featured a similar name, similar lyrics, and similar melody. Williams' version, released in 1951, is the most famous one, and it achieved great success by reaching No. 1 on the year's best-selling singles chart. That version was inducted, in 2001, into the Grammy Hall of Fame.

The song appears as part of the soundtrack to the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, and can be heard by tuning to the radio station "K-Rose." Numerous covers are enjoyed by the song today, including one by Jo Stafford, Johnny Cash, Frankie Laine, and one by Ray Charles from the 1962 album Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music.

Jambalaya (On the Bayou)

In 1952, they released the song Jambalaya (On the Bayou), which became a huge hit and climbed the Billboard charts, reaching number one on the list of best-selling country singles. The song takes its title from a typical Louisiana dish, and tells of a river party complete with dancing and traditional foods, where a multitude of guests court a girl named Ivonne.

The song became a rock and roll standard, thanks to the interpretations of Jerry Lee Lewis, John Fogerty and Fats Domino, whose version entered the 1961 best-selling singles chart at position 30 in the United States, and 41 in the United Kingdom. The writer Stephen King, mentions the song numerous times in the book "Lisey's Story."

Non uscirò mai vivo da questo mondo

This was the last song composed in his lifetime by Hank Williams, who wrote it in collaboration with Fred Rose. It was released posthumously and reached No. 1 on the best-selling singles chart in January 1953. The song had numerous covers, by artists such as The Delta Rhythm Boys, Jimmy Dale Gilmore, Jerry Lee Lewis, Hank Williams Jr., Hank Williams III, and others.

He also appeared in the BBC comedy, Married, and the HBO animated comedy The Life & Times of Tim. In the 2013 PlayStation 3 video game The Last of Us, the song appears as part of the soundtrack, and it can be heard, along with another song by Williams himself (Alone and Forsaken), in the scene in which the two protagonists of the adventure, Joel and Ellie, leave their town in a car.


Kaw-Liga was recorded by Williams, after leaving the Drifting Cowboys, in Nashville in September 1952, and released posthumously in January 1953. Composed with Fred Rose, it remained at the No. 1 position on the Billboard Country Chart for 14 weeks.

Kawliga is a community located in central Alabama on Lake Martin. It gave its name to a wooden statue depicting an Indian, the central subject of Williams' song. Artists such as Johnny Cash, Don McLean, Roy Orbison and others performed covers of the song.

Your Cheatin' Heart

This is one of Williams' most famous songs ever, and is considered one of the greatest country songs in music history. It was inspired to Williams by his relationship with his first wife Audrey Sheppard, and was recorded in Nashville on September 23, under the production of Fred Rose.

Released in January 1953, it became an instant hit reaching No. 1 on the best-selling country singles chart, complicit in the tragic death that had just occurred of its author. The music critic magazine Rolling Stones included the song on its list of the 500 best songs in history, while it ranked fifth on Country Music Television's list of the 100 best country songs in history. Over the years, numerous covers have been taken from the song, by various artists.

Ramblin' Man

Ramblin' Man was written by Williams in 1951 and released as the B-side of the single Take These Chains from My Heart in 1953, and in 1976 reissued as the single Why Don't You Love Me.

The song features highly evocative lyrics, a simple but effective musical structure based on alternating two chords, and a minimal arrangement in which steel guitar riffs stand out. Williams sings the song using the "blue yodel" style.


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  2. Hank Williams
  3. ^ Colin Escott, Hank Williams: The Biography, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1994, ISBN 0-316-24986-6.
  4. ^ Windham, Kathryn Tucker|2007|p=33
  5. ^ George-Warren, Holly; Romanowski, Patricia; Romanowski Bashe, Patricia; Pareles, Jon|p=1066|2001
  6. Spencer, Neil. «The Lost Notebooks of Hank Williams – review». The Guardian. Consultado em 22 de agosto de 2020. ..."Elsewhere, the air of reverence hangs heavily, with Williams's droll humour and proto-rockabilly style largely absent...
  7. Paul Hemphill, Lovesick Blues : The Life of Hank Williams, Penguin Group, 2005 (ISBN 0-670-03414-2).
  8. François Jouffa et Jacques Barsamian, Histoire du Rock, France, Tallandier, coll. « Approches », 9 octobre 2008, 991 p. (ISBN 978-2-84734-488-2).
  9. a b Integrált katalógustár (német és angol nyelven). (Hozzáférés: 2014. április 27.)
  10. a b SNAC (angol nyelven). (Hozzáférés: 2017. október 9.)
  11. a b Internet Broadway Database (angol nyelven). (Hozzáférés: 2017. október 9.)

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