Orfeas Katsoulis | Nov 28, 2022

Table of Content


The Mayapahit empire was a Javanese Hindu thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia, with its center on the island of Java (part of present-day Indonesia), which existed from 1293 to 1527. Mayapahit reached its height of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign was marked by conquests in Southeast Asia. Its achievement is also due to its prime minister, Gajah Mada. According to the Nagarakretagama (Desawarñana) written in 1365, Mayapahit was an empire of 98 tributaries, extending from Sumatra to New Guinea; in the present-day countries of Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, East Timor, southwestern Philippines (particularly the Sulu Archipelago), although the issue of Mayapahit's sphere of influence is still a matter of debate among historians. The nature of Mayapahit relations and influences towards its overseas vassals and also its status as an empire is still a matter of debate.

Mayapahit was still one of the last major Hindu empires in the region and is considered one of the largest and most powerful empires in the history of Indonesia and Southeast Asia, one that is sometimes seen as the forerunner of Indonesia's current borders. Its influence extended far beyond Indonesia's present territory and has been the subject of debate in several studies.

The name Mayapahit comes from Javanese and means "bitter maya". The German orientalist Berthold Laufer suggested that maya in turn comes from the Javanese name for the Aegle marmelos, an Indonesian tree. The name originally named the district of Trowulan and its surroundings, the cradle of Mayapahit, which was connected with the founding of a village in the Tarik forest by Raden Wijaya. It was said that the workers cutting down the Tarik forest had found some bael trees and consumed their bitter fruit, which gave the village its name. It is a widespread practice to name an area, a village or a settlement after the most outstanding or abundant trees in the region. In ancient Java, it was common to name the kingdom after its capital. Mayapahit (sometimes named Moyopait) is also known by other names such as Wikwatikta, although, the natives sometimes called their kingdom Bhumi Jawa or Mandala Jawa.

Few remains of Mayapahit remain, and some details of the history are rather sketchy. However, the indigenous Javanese people did not forget Mayapahit completely, as Mojopait was mentioned vaguely in Babad Tanah Jawl, a Javanese chronicle written in the 18th century. Majapahit left hardly any archaeological remains: the main ruins dating from the Mayapahit period are clustered in the area of Trowulan, which was the royal capital of the kingdom. The archaeological site of Trowulan was first documented in the 19th century by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant Governor of British Java, East India Company between 1811 and 1816. He declared the existence of "temple ruins...scattered over the country for many miles," and referred to Trowulan as "this pride of Java."

In the early 20th century, several Dutch settler historians began to study ancient Javanese and Balinese literature to explore the past of their colony. Two main sources were available: the manuscript Pararaton (Book of Kings) was written in the Kawi language around 1600, and Nagarakretagama (Desawarnaña), written in the same language in 1365. Pararaton focuses on Ken Arok, the founder of Singhasari, but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Mayapahit. The Nagarakretagama is an old Javanese epic poem written during the heyday of Mayapahit, in the reign of Hayam Wuruk, after which some events are narrated. The Dutch obtained the manuscript in 1894 during their military expedition against the royal house Cakranegara of Lombok. There are also some inscriptions in Kawi and Chinese.

The Javanese sources include some mythological and scholarly poetic elements that Cornelis Christiaan Berg, a Dutch naturalist born in the Indies, has ventured might not be a record of the past, but a supernatural means by which the future can be determined. Most scholars do not share his view, as the historical record corresponds to Chinese records that might not have had the same intention. The list of governors and details of the state structure show no sign of having been invented.

The main Chinese historical sources on Mayapahit are the chronicles of the Yuan and the later Ming dynasty. The main Chinese data on Mayapahit are due to the Ming admiral Zheng He, who obtained them during his visit to Mayapahit between 1405 and 1432. Zheng He's translator, Ma Huan, wrote a detailed description of Mayapahit, residence of the Javanese monarch. The report was included in the Yingya Shenglan and contains information on the culture, traditions, and also various social and cultural aspects of Chao-Wa (Java) during the Mayapahit period.

The archaeological zone of Trowulan is the center of studies on the history of Mayapahit. Aerial and satellite images and the discovery of some artifacts have revealed an extensive network of canals that crisscrossed the Mayapahit capital, larger than previously believed.


After defeating the Melayu kingdom in Sumatra in 1290, Singhasari became the most powerful kingdom in the region. Kublai Khan, grand khan of the Mongol Empire and emperor of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, dispatched emissaries to Singhasari to demand that he pay tribute. Singhasari's Kertanegara refused to do so, offended the Mongol diplomatic mission and defied the great khan. In response, Kublai Khan sent a great expedition of a thousand ships to Java in 1293.

Mongol invasion

By then, Jayakatwang, the adipati (duke) of Kediri, a vassal state of Singhasari, had murdered Kertanagara and usurped the throne. After being pardoned by Jayakatwnag through the intercession of the regent of Madura, Arya Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara's son-in-law, was granted the territory of the Tarik forest. He then cleared the vast forest and built a new settlement which was called Mayapahit, named after a fruit that had a bitter taste (maya is the name of the fruit and pahit means bitter). Wijaya colluded with the Mongol army sent by Kublai Kan against Jayakatwang, but, once the latter was eliminated, he turned against the Mongols, attacked them by surprise, and forced them to withdraw from Java. The Yuan army had to retreat in disorder since it was in hostile territory and its army had been attacked by the Javanese army. The retreat was also imposed by the weather: it was the last chance for the Yuan army to take advantage of the monsoon winds to retreat northward; if it had delayed the evacuation, it would have had to wait another six months before having favorable winds again.

The first king, Kertarajasa Jayawardhana

In 1293, Raden Wijaya erected a fortress in the capital Mayapahit. The exact date of foundation of the Mayapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of the kartika month of 1215 of the Shaka era, which is equivalent to November 10, 1293. During his coronation it was given the official name of Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. King Kertarajasa took as wives the four daughters of Kertanegara: his first wife and chief queen consort, Tribhuwaneswari and her three sisters, Prajnaparamita, Naredraduhita and Gayatri Rajapatni, the youngest. He also betrothed a Sumatran Malay princess of Dharmasraya named Dara Petak.

The new kingdom faced several challenges. Some of Kertarajasa's most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora and Nambi, rebelled against him, albeit unsuccessfully. It is suspected that the Mahapati (prime minister) Halayudha organized the conspiracy to eliminate all his rivals in the court and encouraged them to rebel against the king, while he gained royal favor and attained the highest position in the government. However, his treachery was discovered after the death of the last rebel, Kuti. He was subsequently captured, imprisoned for his machinations and sentenced to death. Wijaya himself died in 1309.


Kertarajasa Wijaya was succeeded by his heir Jayanegara, his son with his wife from Dharmasraya, Indreswari. Jayanegara's reign was a complicated and chaotic one, marred by several rebellions by his father's former comrade-in-arms. Among others were the rebellion of Gajah Biru in 1314 and that of Rakrian Kuti in 1319. Kuti's rebellion was the most dangerous, as Kuti managed to take control of the capital. With the help of Gajah Mada and his royal guard Bhayangkara, Jayanegara was barely able to escape from the capital and hid safely in the village of Badander. While the king was in his hideout, Gajamada returned to the capital to assess the situation. After discovering that Kuti's rebellion was not supported by the Mayapahit nobility, Gajamada joined forces to crush Kuti's rebellion.

After Kuti's forces were defeated, Jayanegara was put back on his throne. For his loyalty and excellent service, Gajamada was promoted to a high position to begin his career in royal court politics.

According to tradition, Wijaya's son and successor, Jayanegara, was infamous for his immorality. One of his unsavory acts was his desire to take his half-sisters, Gitarja and Rajadewi, as wives. Since Javanese tradition abhorred the practice of marrying half-sisters, the council of elders was against the king's wishes. It is not clear what motivated Jayanegara to marry his half-sisters - it may have been his way of securing himself on the throne by preventing his rivals from being suitors for his half-sisters, although in the later period of the Mayapahit court the custom of cousin marriage was quite common. In the Pararaton, he was known as Kala Gemet, or "weak villain". Around the time of Jayanegara's reign, the Italian friar Odorico de Pordenone visited the Mayapahit court in Java.

In 1328, Jayanegara was killed by his physicist, Tanca, during a surgical operation. In complete anger and out of control, Gajamada immediately killed Tanca. The reason behind the regicide was never clear. According to the Pararaton, it was Tanca's revenge for sexually abusing his wife.n However, according to the Balinese Babad Dalem manuscript, the murder was a ploy designed by Gajah Mada himself to free the kingdom from the evil tyranny. Tradition mentions that the immoral, cruel and abusive king often seduced and abused women, including the wives of his own subordinates. Another possible reason is to protect the two princesses - Gitarja and Rajadewi, the daughters of Gayatri Rajapatni from the king's cruelty. Since the murdered king had no descendants, he did not appoint a successor.

Golden age

Jayanegara's stepmother, Gayatri Rajaptni - the most revered matriarch in the court - was supposed to be left in charge. However, Rajapatni had retired from earthly affairs to become a Buddhist nun, so she appointed her daughter, Dyah Gitarja, known by her official name of Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, Rajapatni's ward, as queen of Mayapahit. Tribuwhana appointed Gajamada as prime minister in 1336. During his appointment Gajamada announced his Palapa oath, and revealed his plan to expand the kingdom and build an empire.

During the reign of Tribuwhana, the Mayapahit kingdom expanded and gained fame in the area. Merced to the initiative of its capable and ambitious prime minister, Gajamada, Mayapahit sent its army to conquer the neighboring island of Bali. According to the manuscript Babad Arya Tabanan, in 1342 the armies of Mayapahit to the command of Gajamada and of its assistant the general Arya Damar, regent of Palembang, disembarked in Bali. After seven months of battles, they defeated the Balinese king and conquered the Balinese capital of Bedulu in 1343. After the conquest of Bali, Mayapahit delegated the authority on the island in the smaller children of Arya Damar: Arya Kenceng, Arya Kutawandira, Arya Sentong and Arya Belog. Arya Kenceng guided his brothers in the task of governing Bali under the sovereignty Mayapahit, was the founder of the royal Balinese houses of Tabanan and Bading. Mayapahit installed a vassal dynasty that governed the kingdom of Bali in the later centuries. Tribhuwana reigned Mayapahit until the death of his mother in 1350. He abdicated the throne in his son, Hayam Wuruk.

Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Mayapahit from 1350 to 1389.

During this period, Mayapahit reached its peak with the help of the prime minister Gajah Mada. Under Gajah Mada (1313-64), Mayapahit conquered more territories and became the main power in the region. According to the Nagarakretagama, canto XIII and XIV mention several states in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, the Nusa Tenggara Islands, Malaku, New Guinea, Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago, Luzon and some parts of the Visayan Islands within the Mayapahit sphere of influence. The Hiyakat Raja Pasai, a 14th century Aceh chronicle, describes a Mayapahit naval invasion of Samudra Pasai in 1350. The attacking force consisted of 400 large jong and countless malangbang and kelulus. This expansion marked the maximum extent of Mayapahit, making it one of the most influential empires in Indonesian history. It is considered as a commercial empire in the civilization of Asia.

In addition to launching naval and military expeditions, the expansion of the Mayapahit empire also included diplomacy and alliance. Hayam Wuruk decided, probably for political reasons, to take Princess Citra Rashmi (Dyah Pitaloka) from the neighboring kingdom of Sonda as his consort. The Sundanese took this proposal as an agreement for an alliance. In 1357 the Sundanese king and the royal family went to Mayapahit to accompany and marry his daughter to Hayam Wuruk. However, Gajah Mada saw this event as an opportunity to demand the submission of Sonda to Mayapahit supremacy. Skirmish between the Sondanese royal family and the Mayapahit troops at Bubat Square was inevitable. Despite valiant resistance, the royal family was overwhelmed and annihilated. Tradition mentions that the princess, heartbroken, took her own life to defend the honor of her country. The battle of Bubat, or the tragedy of Pasunda Bubat, became the central theme of the Kidung Sunda, also mentioned in Carita Parahyangan and Pararaton, although it was never mentioned in the Nagarakretagama.

The Nagarakretagama, written in 1365, portrays a sophisticated court with a sophisticated taste for

The poet describes Mayapahit as the center of a huge mandala that stretched from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and the Malay peninsula. The poet describes Mayapahit as the center of a huge mandala that stretched from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Some local traditions in many parts of Indonesia keep records of Mayapahit's power in the 14th century in a more or less legendary form. Direct Mayapahit administration did not extend beyond East Java and Bali, but challenges to Mayapahit supremacy in the outer islands attracted energetic reprisals.

To revive the fortunes of Malayu in Sumatra, in the 1370s, a Malay ruler from Palembang sent a delegation to the court of the emperor of the new Ming dynasty. He invited China to resume the tributary system, just as Srivijaya had done centuries earlier. Being aware of this diplomatic maneuver, King Hayam Wuruk immediately sent a delegation to Nanjing and informed the emperor that Malayu was his vassal and was not an independent country. Subsequently, in 1377, a few years after the death of Gajah Mada, Mayapahit sent a punitive naval attack against the rebellion in Palembang, contributing to the end of Srivijaya's successor kingdom. Gajah Mada's other renowned general was Adityawarman, known for his conquest of Minangkabau.

The nature of the Mayapahit empire and its extent is a matter of debate. It may have had limited or entirely theoretical influence over some of the tributary states, including Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia, over which, according to the Nagarakretagama, Mayapahit had authority. Economic and geographic limitations suggest that the outer states were, rather than under regular, centralized authority, probably connected primarily by trade connections, which were probably a royal monopoly. The Nagarakretagama also claimed relations with Champa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, even delegations were sent to China. Although the Mayapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighboring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a greater share of the trade that flowed through the archipelago.

Around the time Mayapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytizers began to arrive in the region. The tomb of Troloyo, a remnant of the Muslim burial complex was discovered within the area of Trowulan, the royal capital of Mayapahit. Experts suggest that the cemetery was used between 1368 and 1611 AD, meaning that Muslim traders had resided in the capital since the mid-14th century, during the reign of Hayam Wuruk.


After the death of Hayam Wuruk in 1389, Mayapahit power entered a period of decline with a conflict over the succession. Hayam Wuruk was succeeded by Crown Princess Kusumawardhani, who betrothed a relative, Prince Wikramawardhana. Hayam Wuruk also had a son from his previous marriage, Prince Wirabhumi, who also claimed the throne.

By the time Hayam Wuruk died, Mayapahit had already lost his control of the vassal states on the northern coasts of Sumatra and the Malay peninsula. The latter, according to Chinese sources, would become vassals of the Ayutthaya kingdom until the rise of the Malay Sultanate, supported by the Ming dynasty.

In the late 14th century the Malay kingdom of Singapura was founded, and quickly attracted the attention of a Mayapahit fleet, which they claimed was Tumasik, a rebellious colony. Singapura was finally sacked by Mayapahit in 1398, after a siege of about 1 month by 300 jong and 200,000 soldiers. The last king, Sri Iskandar Shah, fled to the west coast of the Malay peninsula to establish the Sultanate of Malacca in 1400.

It is believed that a civil war, called the Regreg war, occurred from 1405 to 1406. The war was fought as a succession dispute between the western court led by Wikramawardhana and the eastern court led by Bhre Wirabhumi. Wikramawardhana was victorious. Wirabhumi was captured and beheaded. However, the civil war left Mayapahit without financial resources, left the kingdom exhausted and weakened Mayapahit power in its vassals and outer colonies.

Despite being weakened by internal conflicts, in 1409 Mayapahit continued the invasion of the Pagaruyung kingdom in West Sumatra, recorded in a version of the semi-legendary legend of Minangkabau. It is mentioned that the Javanese force was defeated in a buffalo fight.

During the reign of Wikramawardhana, a series of naval expeditions of the Ming navy led by Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim admiral, reached Java on several occasions during the period between 1405 and 1433. These Chinese voyages passed through several ports in Asia and reached as far as Africa, including Mayapahit ports. Zheng He is said to have visited the Mayapahit court.

These numerous Chinese voyages were not simply a naval exploration, but a show of power and a demonstration of geopolitical reach. The Chinese Ming dynasty had recently overthrown the Mongols of the Yuan dynasty, and they were eager to establish their hegemony in the world, which changed the geopolitical balance in Asia. China intervened in South Seas politics by supporting the Thais against the declining Khmer empire and by supporting and installing allied factions in India, Sri Lanka and elsewhere on the Indian Ocean coasts. Perhaps the most important Chinese intervention, however, was support for the newly founded sultanate of Malacca, as a rival and counterweight to the Mayapahit influence in Java.

Previously, Mayapahit had succeeded in establishing its influence in the Straits of Malacca by curbing the aspirations of the Malay polities in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula to achieve geopolitical power like that of Srivijaya. Mayapahit, of Hindu religion, was the most powerful maritime power in the Southeast Asian seas at the time and were confronted by Chinese expansion into their sphere of influence. Ming support for Malacca and the spread of Islam, propagated by Malacca and Zheng He's treasure fleet, weakened the maritime influence in Sumatra, which caused the northern part to increasingly convert to Islam and become independent of Mayapahit, leaving only Indragari, Jambi and Palembang, remnants of the former Srivijaya, under Mayapahit sovereignty in Sumatra, bordering the kingdom of Pagaruyung to the west and the independent Muslim kingdoms to the north.

This Ming dynasty journey is extremely important for Mayapahit historiography, as Zheng He's translator, Ma Huan, wrote Yingya Shenglan, a detailed description of Mayapahit, which provides valuable insight into the culture, knowledge, as well as various social aspects and knowledge of Java during the Mayapahit period.

The Chinese provided systematic support to Malacca, and its sultan made at least one trip to personally pay homage to the Ming emperor. Malacca actively encouraged conversion to Islam in the area, while the Ming fleet established communities on the northern coast of Java, thereby creating a permanent opposition to the Javanese Hindus. Expeditions had already established Chinese, Arab and Malay Muslim communities before 1430 in northern Javanese ports such as Semarang, Demak, Tuban and Ampel, thus beginning to gain a foothold on the northern coast of Java. Malacca prospered under the protection of the Ming dynasty, while the Mayapahit continually retreated.

Wikramawardhana reigned until 1426 and was succeeded by his daughter Suhita, who ruled from 1426 to 1447. She was the second daughter of Wikramawardhana and a concubine who was the daughter of Wirabhumi. Suhita's reign was the second time Mayapahit was ruled by a queen regent after her great-grandmother Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi. Her reign was immortalized in the Javanese legend of Damarwulan, as a queen named Prabu Kenya appeared in the story, and during Suhita's reign there was a war with Blambangan, as the legend goes.

In 1447, Suhita died and was succeeded by Kertawijaya, his brother, who ruled until 1451. After Kertawijaya's death, Bhre Pamotan became the king under the name of Rajasawardhana. He died in 1453. A kingless period of three years was possibly the result of a succession crisis. Girisawardhana, son of Kertawijaya, came to power in 1456. He died in 1466 and was succeeded by Singhawikramawardhana.

In 1468 Prince Kertabhumi rebelled against Singhawikramawardhana, proclaiming himself king of Mayapahit. The deposed Singhawikramawardhana retreated upriver along the Brantas River, moved the capital of the kingdom inland to Daha (the former capital of the Kediri kingdom), effectively separating Mayapahit, under Bhre Kertabumi at Trowulan and Singhawikramawardhana at Daha. Singhawikramawardhana continued his reign until he was succeeded by his son Girindrawardhana (Ranawijaya) in 1474.

In the midst of this period of the divided Mayapahit court, the kingdom found itself unable to control the already crumbling western part of the empire. The growing power of the Sultanate of Malacca began to gain effective control of the Straits of Malacca in the mid-15th century and to expand its influence into Sumatra. And between these events, according to Malay annals, Indragiri and Siantan were given to Malacca as a dowry for the marriage of a Mayapahit princess and the Sultan of Malacca, further weakening Mayapahit influence in the western part of the archipelago. Kertabhumi managed to stabilize this situation by allying with Muslim merchants, giving them trading rights on the north coast of Java, with Demak as its center in exchange for their loyalty to Mayapahit. This policy boosted Mayapahit's treasury and power but weakened Hindo-Buddhism as its main religion because Muslim proselytizing spread rapidly, especially in the coastal Javanese principalities. The grievances of Hindo-Buddhist followers paved the way for Ranawijaya to defeat Kertabumi.

The dates of the end of the mayapahit empire vary from 1478, traditionally described in sinengkalan or chandrasengkala (chronogram) Sirna ilang kertaning bhumi that corresponds to the year of Saka 1400, (the ends of centuries are considered a moment in which changes of dynasties or courts occur) until 1527. The year 1478 was the year of the war of Sudarma Wisuta, when the army of Ranawijaya under the command of general Udara (who later became vice-regent) broke through the defenses of Trowulan and assassinated Kertabumi in his palace, but it did not mean the fall of Mayapahit itself.

Demak sent reinforcements under Sunan Ngudung, who later died in battle and was replaced by Sunan Kudus, but they arrived too late to save Kertabumi, although they managed to repel Ranawijaya's army. This event is mentioned in Trailokyapuri (Jiwu) and the Petak inscription, where Ranawijaya claimed that he had already defeated Kertabhumi and reunified Mayapahit as a single kingdom. Ranawikjaya reigned from 1478 to 1498 under the official name of Girindrawardhana, with Udara as his vice-regent. This event triggered the war between the Demak and Daha sultanate as the Demak rulers were descendants of Kertabhumi...,

During this period of Mayapahit retreat to Inner Daha and war in Java, Demak, being the dominant power of the Javanese coastal lands and the whole of Java, seized the region of Jambi and Palembang in Sumatra from Mayapahit.

In 1498, there was a turning point when Girindrawardhana was deposed by his vice-regent, Udara. After this coup, the war between Demak and Daha calmed down, with some sources claiming that Raden Patah, sultan of Demak, abandoned Mayapahit as his father had done, while others say that Udara agreed to become a vassal of Demak, even marrying Raden Patah's youngest daughter.

Meanwhile in the west, Malacca was captured by the Portuguese in 1511. The delicate balance between Demak and Daha ended when Udara, seeing an opportunity to eliminate Demak, asked the Portuguese of Malacca for help, forcing Demak to attack Malacca and Daha to end the alliance.

With the fall of Daha (Kediri), destroyed by Demak in 1527, the emergent Muslim forces finally defeated the remains of the Mayapahit kingdom at the beginning of the XVI century. And with the fall of Daha, a great number of courtiers, artisans, priests and members of the royalty fled to the east, to the island of Bali. The refugees fled to the east to avoid the retaliation of Demak for their support to Ranawijaya against Kerthabumi.

Demak was under the leadership of Raden (later crowned sultan) Patah (Arabic name: Fatah, literally "liberator", "conqueror"), who was recognized as the legitimate successor of Mayapahit. According to the Babad Tanah Jawi and the Demak tradition, the source of Patah's legitimacy was because his first sultan, Raden Patah, was the son of the Mayapahit king Brawijaya V with a Chinese concubine. Another argument supports Demak as the successor of Mayapahit; the emerging Demak sultanate was easily accepted as the dominant regional power, since Demak was the former vassal of Mayapahit and was located near the Mayapahit kingdom in East Java.

Demak established itself as the main power in the area and the first Islamic sultanate in Java. After the fall of Mayapahit, the Hindu kingdoms in Java remained in Blambangan in the far east and the Sundanese kingdom of Pajajaran in the west. Gradually, Hindu communities began to retreat to the mountains in East Java and also to the neighboring island of Bali. A small enclave of Hindu communities remains in the Tengger mountain range.

Citation error: There are <ref> tags for a group named "lower-roman", but the <references group="lower-roman" tag was not found.


  1. Majapahit
  2. Imperio mayapajit
  3. ^ Surya Majapahit (the Sun of Majapahit) is the emblem commonly found in Majapahit ruins. It served as the symbol of the Majapahit empire.
  4. ^ Red and white is the royal color of Majapahit. How the color was used by Majapahit is still disputed, see the related article for explanation.
  5. ^ Some Javanese court literatures uses this Old Javanese name, which bears the same meaning as "Majapahit", for example in Nagarakretagama canto 1 stanza 2 and Kidung Harsawijaya. It is sometimes also written backwards as Tiktawilwa, for example in Nagarakretagama canto 18 stanza 4. However it is still more widely known by its Javanese name, as recorded in the hikayats of Aceh, Banjar, Malay, Palembang, etc.
  6. ^ [18] cited in[10]: 18 and 311
  7. Mahandis Y. Thamrin (September 2012). "10 November, Hari Berdirinya Majapahit" (in Indonesian). National Geographic Indonesia. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  8. Cribb, Robert (2013). Historical Atlas of Indonesia (Atlas histórico de Indonesia). Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 9781136780578.
  9. Encyclopédie Universalis, Indonésie : « beaucoup des soldats de Kubilai Khan s'établirent en effet dans le pays ».
  10. ^ M.C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300, 2nd ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991, pag. 18.

Please Disable Ddblocker

We are sorry, but it looks like you have an dblocker enabled.

Our only way to maintain this website is by serving a minimum ammount of ads

Please disable your adblocker in order to continue.

Dafato needs your help!

Dafato is a non-profit website that aims to record and present historical events without bias.

The continuous and uninterrupted operation of the site relies on donations from generous readers like you.

Your donation, no matter the size will help to continue providing articles to readers like you.

Will you consider making a donation today?